Amyris
AMYRIS, INC. (Form: 10-K, Received: 04/17/2017 17:36:54)

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the Transition Period from                      to

 

Commission File Number: 001-34885

 

AMYRIS, INC.

 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   55-0856151

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

5885 Hollis Street, Suite 100, Emeryville, California   94608
(Address of principal executive office)   (Zip Code)

 

(510) 450-0761

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share  

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(NASDAQ Global Select Market)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  ☐    No  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  ☐    No  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one.)

 

Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated filer     Smaller reporting company  
             
        Emerging growth company  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.):    Yes  ☐    No  ☒

 

As of June 30, 2016, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $37.0 million, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock on the NASDAQ Stock Market on such date.

 

278,320,194 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were outstanding as of January 31, 2017.

 

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the registrant’s 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on or about May 23, 2017 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. The registrant intends to file its proxy statement within 120 days after its fiscal year end.

 

 

 

 

AMYRIS, INC.

 

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

 

INDEX

 

    Page
  PART I  
Item 1. Business 2
Item 1A. Risk Factors 21
  Executive Officers of the Registrant 61
Item 1B Unresolved Staff Comments 61
Item 2. Properties 62
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 63
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 63
     
  PART II  
     
Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 64
Item 6. Selected Financial Data 71
Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 72
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 101
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 103
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 191
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 191
Item 9B. Other Information 193
     
  PART III  
     
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 195
Item 11. Executive Compensation 195
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 195
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence 196
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services 196
     
  PART IV  
     
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules 197
  Signatures 198

 

 

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This report on Form 10-K, including the sections entitled “Item 1. Business,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties and which are subject to safe harbors under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our strategy, future production capacity and other aspects of our future operations, ability to launch new products, improve our production efficiencies, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, expectations regarding demand and acceptance for our technologies, growth opportunities and trends in the market in which we operate, prospects and plans and objectives of management. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements contained in this report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us on the date of this report on Form 10-K and, except as required by law, we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

TRADEMARKS

 

Amyris, the Amyris logo, Biofene, Biossance, Dial-A-Blend, Diesel de Cana, Evoshield, µPharm, Muck Daddy, Myralene, Neossance and No Compromise are trademarks or registered trademarks of Amyris, Inc. This report also contains trademarks and trade names of other businesses that are the property of their respective holders.

 

 

 

 

 

  1  
 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

Overview

 

Amyris, Inc. (or the "Company," "Amyris," "we," "us," or "our") is a leading integrated industrial biotechnology company that is applying its technology platform to engineer, manufacture and sell high performance, low cost products into the Health and Nutrition, Personal Care and Performance Materials markets. Our proven technology platform allows us to rapidly engineer microbes and use them as catalysts to metabolize renewable, plant-sourced sugars into large volume, high-value ingredients. Our biotechnology platform and industrial fermentation process replaces existing complex and expensive chemical manufacturing processes. We believe industrial synthetic biology represents a third industrial revolution, bringing together biology and engineering to generate new, more sustainable materials to meet the growing global demand for bio-based replacements for petroleum, animal- or plant-derived ingredients. We continue to build demand for our current portfolio of products through a sales network comprised of direct sales and distributors, and are engaged in collaborations across each of our three market focus areas to drive additional product sales and partnership opportunities. Via our partnership model, we co-invest in the development of each molecule to bring it from the lab to commercial scale and then capture long term revenue either via the sale of the molecule to the partner and/or value sharing of end product sales.

 

Background

 

Amyris was founded in 2003 in the San Francisco Bay Area by a group of scientists from the University of California, Berkeley. Our first major milestone came in 2005 when, through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, we developed technology capable of creating microbial strains that produce artemisinic acid - a precursor of artemisinin, an effective anti-malarial drug. In 2008, we granted royalty-free licenses to allow Sanofi-Aventis (Sanofi) to produce artemisinic acid using our technology. Building on our success with artemisinic acid, in 2007 we began applying our technology platform to develop, manufacture and sell sustainable alternatives to a broad range of markets.

 

We focused our initial development efforts primarily on the production of Biofene ® , our brand of renewable farnesene, a long-chain, branched hydrocarbon molecule that we manufacture through fermentation using engineered microbes. Our farnesene derivatives are sold in hundreds of products as nutraceuticals, skin care, fragrances, solvents, polymers, and lubricants ingredients. The commercialization of farnesene pushed us to create a more cost efficient, faster and accurate development process in the lab and drive costs out of our Brotas, Brazil production facility. This investment has enabled our technology platform to rapidly develop microbial strains and commercialize target molecules. In 2014, we began manufacturing additional molecules for the flavors and fragrance (F&F) industry, in 2015 we began investing to expand our capabilities to other small molecule chemical classes beyond terpenes via our collaboration with the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), as discussed below, and in 2016 we expanded into proteins.

 

Since inception, we have received equity and debt financing from investors including affiliates of Total S.A. (collectively referred to as Total), the international energy company, and affiliates of Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited, the Singapore sovereign wealth fund (collectively referred to as Temasek), and various venture capital and private equity investors. Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Stock Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol AMRS.

 

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Our Platform

 

Amyris has invested over $500 million in infrastructure and technology to create microbes that produce chemicals from sugar or other feedstocks at commercial scale. This platform has been used to design, build, optimize, and upscale strains producing 5 distinct molecules, leading to more than 15 commercial products used in 500 consumer products. Our time to market for molecules has decreased from 7 years to less than a year for our most recent molecule, mainly due to our ability to leverage the technology platform we have built.

 

Our technology platform has been in active use since 2008, and has been integrated with our commercial production since 2011, creating a seamless organism development process that we believe makes Amyris an industry leader in the successful scale-up of small molecules. The key performance characteristics of our platform that we believe differentiate Amyris include our proprietary computational tools, strain construction tools, screening and analytics tools, and advanced lab automation and data integration. Our state-of-the-art infrastructure includes industry leading strain engineering and lab automation located in Emeryville, CA, pilot scale production facilities in Emeryville, CA and Campinas, Brazil, a demonstration scale facility in Campinas, Brazil and a commercial scale production facility in Brotas, Brazil.

 

We are able to use a wide variety of feedstocks for production, but have focused on accessing Brazilian sugarcane for our large-scale production because of its renewability, low cost and relative price stability. We have also successfully used other feedstocks such as sugar beets, corn dextrose, sweet sorghum and cellulosic sugars at various manufacturing facilities.

 

We are currently producing three molecules at our Brotas, Brazil plant: farnesene and two fragrance molecules.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were founded in 2003 and completed our initial public offering in 2010. As of January 31, 2017, we had 440 full-time employees (including 280 in the United States and 160 in Brazil). Our corporate headquarters and pilot plant are located in Emeryville, California, and our Brazil headquarters and pilot plant are located in Campinas, Brazil. We have one operating subsidiary, Amyris Brasil Ltda. (Amyris Brasil) which oversees establishment and expansion of our production operations in Brazil.

 

Strategy and Business Model

 

Our mission is to apply innovative science to deliver sustainable solutions for a growing world. We seek to become the world's leading provider of renewable, high-performance alternatives to non-renewable and scarce products. In the past, choosing a renewable product often required producers to compromise on performance or price. With our technology, leading consumer brands can develop products made from renewable sources that offer equivalent or better performance and stable supply with competitive pricing. We call this our No Compromise® value proposition. We aim to improve the world one molecule at a time by providing the best alternatives to the products the world relies on every day.

 

We have developed and are operating our company under a business model that generates cash from collaborations, from product sales, and value share. We believe this combination will enable us to realize our vision of becoming the world’s leading renewable products company.

 

  3  
 

Collaborations

 

Collaborations provide us with funding to develop the solutions partners are looking for to gain a competitive advantage either through a lower cost, more reliable supply source or through access to a needed scarce ingredient. This results in our partners gaining a competitive performance and economic advantage while Amyris is able to further build upon our leading technology platform and gain access to upfront funding as well as a long-term revenue stream. These collaborative technology-based partnerships typically range from two to five years and have funded a substantial portion of our direct research and development expenses since 2012. These relationships have also provided us with a robust pipeline of molecules from which we expect to launch production of three to four products annually at our industrial scale facility in Brotas, Brazil. Our collaborations generate value in several ways, including:

 

helping us identify and develop molecules that address critical supply or performance needs for our partners, while receiving collaboration payments for technology access and research and development;
     
  minimizing risk of product market entry and optimizing our resource prioritization;

 

using our integrated manufacturing capabilities to produce and sell collaboration target molecules to our partners;

 

participating in additional value-sharing arrangements based on the cost/benefits to our partners of using the molecules we develop; and

 

providing opportunities to develop products for markets outside the partner agreements from the research insights gained and intellectual property obtained during the development process.

 

We believe this collaboration-based business model creates long-term relationships with aligned incentives for success, and allows us to access a portion of the capital and resources necessary to support large-scale production and global distribution of our products.

 

Product Sales

 

In addition to our collaborations (including product sales to and value sharing arrangements with our collaboration partners as described above), we have been developing, manufacturing and selling high-value farnesene derivatives that are branded as our Neossance® emollients for the cosmetics industry, and our Biossance TM direct to consumer beauty brand. Both brands are based on our farnesene derivative, squalane. The Neossance brand is focused on business to business sales and is sold via our distributor network in order to accelerate commercialization. Selling squalane as a branded product has enabled us to differentiate ourselves from the other squalane sources available on the market which are either detrimental to the environment or of lower quality and subject to severe supply and pricing fluctuations. Since its launch in 2011, we have achieved worldwide reach for our Neossance emollients, with our initial high-performance emollient (Neossance squalane) serving as a key ingredient in personal care products for a growing list of cosmetics companies. In December 2016, we formed a joint venture for our Neossance business with Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd. and Nippon Surfactant Industries Co., Ltd. (collectively referred to as Nikko), in which we hold a 50% interest. See below under “Business-Joint Ventures” for more information regarding our Neossance joint venture.

 

  4  
 

In 2015, we launched our direct to consumer beauty brand, Biossance. The brand was initially developed to capture a greater value share of the direct to consumer beauty brand market versus only selling squalane into this market as an ingredient. The first Biossance product launched, The Revitalizer, is made exclusively from Neossance squalane. Biossance products were initially sold solely through our ecommerce branded website and in 2016 we expanded the product line to include an expansive line of high-performance skin care products and began sales through the Home Shopping Network (HSN). In October 2016, we announced that our Biossance product line would begin to be carried at Sephora in 2017. In February 2017, we launched a full squalane based consumer cosmetic line at participating Sephora stores and Sephora online. All of the products are based on Amyris’s commitment to No Compromise TM . Since the launch, sales have grown, and with Sephora’s partnership, we are looking to expand to more stores.

 

Via our collaboration partnership model, we also have several products we manufacture and sell to our partners in the F&F and Performance Materials industries. In 2014 we established sales of F&F ingredients to a collaboration partner, representing our first major product sales of a molecule other than farnesene and, in 2015, we established sales of a second F&F molecule.

 

With partners such as Kuraray Co., Ltd. (Kuraray) and Novvi LLC (Novvi), our joint-venture with Cosan US. Inc. (Cosan US and, together with its affiliates, Cosan), American Refining Group, Inc. (ARG) and Chevron Products Company, a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron) we sell farnesene for the manufacture of performance materials such as polymers, lubricants and specialty adhesives. Kuraray uses our farnesene to produce liquid farnesene rubber, a highly effective tire additive with superior snow, ice and wet-grip properties. We also produce and sell a farnesene derivative, Myralene®, a solvent with very good cleaning, worker health and environmental benefits. We continue to produce and sell renewable diesel for niche markets in Brazil, and renewable jet fuel for early adoption of such jet fuel in specific routes selected by participating airlines. Though these products have not yet generated material net cash contributions to our business, we have maintained such sales as part of our industrial-scale manufacturing offtake and to support our ongoing development efforts toward a commercially-viable Biofene-based renewable fuel in collaboration with Total.

 

Manufacturing

 

We began industrial-scale production of our products at contract manufacturing facilities in 2011 and, in December 2012, commenced operations at our first purpose-built, large-scale production facility in southeastern Brazil. This multi-product production facility, located in Brotas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is adjacent to an existing sugar and ethanol mill operated by Tonon Bioenergia SA (Tonon), formerly known as Paraíso Bioenergia. Through 2016, we produced farnesene and two ingredients for the F&F industry at commercial scale at such facility. Under our manufacturing agreement, Tonon supplies sugarcane syrup and certain utilities. Amyris is solely responsible for maintenance and operation of our plant. Our Brotas facility has six 200,000 liter production fermenters and was designed to process sugarcane juice and syrup, or their equivalent, from up to one million tons of raw sugarcane annually. In December 2012, we began production of farnesene at this facility. Our first shipment of farnesene produced at the Brotas facility occurred in February 2013, and our first shipment of a fragrance molecule from the facility occurred in August 2014. We began manufacturing our second fragrance molecule at the Brotas facility in September 2015 and commenced shipping the product in December 2015, with volume ramp up in 2016. In 2016, we made the first large scale shipments of Biofene to our partner who successfully produced and sold a high-value nutraceutical product to their customers. In February 2017, we broke ground on a second purpose-built, large-scale production facility adjacent to our current Brotas facility.

 

  5  
 

For many of our products, we perform additional distillation or chemical finishing steps to convert initial target molecules into other finished products, such as renewable squalane, F&F ingredients, lubricants, performance polymers and diesel. We have agreements with several facilities in the U.S. and Brazil to perform distillation, filtration, purification and hydrogenation steps for such products. We may enter into additional agreements with other facilities for finishing services and to access flexible capacity and an array of services as we develop additional products. In December 2016, we purchased a facility in Leland, North Carolina, which had been previously operated by Glycotech Inc. (Glycotech) to convert our Biofene into squalane and other final products. We subsequently contributed that facility to our Neossance joint venture discuss above. See below under “Business-Joint Ventures” for more information regarding our Neossance joint venture.

 

Technology

 

Synthetic biology uses engineering concepts to leverage the power of biology. We have developed innovative microbial engineering and screening technologies that allow us to transform the way microbes metabolize sugars. Specifically, we engineer microbes, such as yeast, and use them as catalysts to convert sugar, through fermentation, into high-value molecules. In 2015, we were awarded a DARPA investment to expand the capabilities of our technology platform beyond terpenoids. The investment has resulted in us developing an integrated platform with artificial intelligence that will speed up the development and commercialization of small molecules across 15 different chemical classes. In 2016, we entered into a partnership with Biogen. Inc. (Biogen) that is utilizing our strain engineering toolbox to develop and produce recombinant proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, for pharmaceutical use.

 

Together with our collaboration partners, we use these molecules as building blocks for a wide range of products in our target markets. This is our foundation for providing high-performance, cost competitive and sustainable alternatives to a wide variety of markets.

 

Research and Development

 

Our ongoing technology development is focused primarily on developing microbial strains that produce targeted molecules and on improving the performance of our production microbial strains. As described in more detail below, our process consists of a series of steps including:

 

identifying new target molecules;

 

creating new microbial strains capable of producing the target molecules;

 

increasing product yield and productivity from microbial strains through strain modification or fermentation process improvements; and

 

translating these steps from lab to commercial scale production consistently.

 

  6  
 

We devote substantial resources to our research and development efforts. As of January 31, 2017, our research and development organization included approximately 147 employees, 45 of whom held Ph.D.s. Our research and development expenditures were approximately $51.4 million, $44.6 million, and $49.7 million for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

Strain Engineering and Scale-Up Process

 

The primary biological pathway within the microbe that we currently use to produce our commercial molecules is called the isoprenoid or terpenoid pathway. Isoprenoids constitute a large, diverse class of as many as 40,000 identified organic chemicals produced by this pathway in nature, with current product applications in a wide range of industries. Implementing the classical engineering cycle of “Design-Build-Test-Learn” with investments of more than $500 million to date for research and development, we have reduced strain engineering time to produce target isoprenoid molecules from years to months, opening up the possibility of quickly producing thousands of different target molecules from fermentation. Our platform has also allowed us to expand beyond terpenoids to other small molecule chemical classes and proteins.

 

We have developed a high-throughput strain engineering system that is currently capable of producing and screening more than 100,000 yeast strains per month, which allows us to achieve approximately a 95% lower cost per strain than we achieved in 2009. We generated more than 500,000 unique strains in 2016, surpassing 5.0 million unique strains created since our inception, with each strain testing for improved production of the target molecules. In addition, through our lab-scale and pilot-plant fermentation operations, and our proprietary analytical tools, we are now able to predict, with high reliability, the industrial performance of candidate strains in our 200,000-liter fermenters at our Brotas plant.

 

The following summarizes the key steps in our strain engineering and scale-up processes:

 

1. Identifying target molecules . We start our process by identifying, usually based on input from collaborators, a commercial application for which we can deliver an attractive No Compromise® solution. We identify the key molecular properties that are essential to product performance in a specific commercial application and then analyze the chemical structures that drive those key performance characteristics. Finally, we identify target molecules or derivatives of molecules that contain these key chemical structures and that may be cost-effectively produced by our yeast strains.

 

2. Developing initial strains/proof of concept . We identify the enzyme-catalyzed chemical conversion steps required for the target molecule's production in a biological pathway. We then seek to design a pathway to produce the target molecule, either directly or by producing a molecule that can, through simple chemical steps, be synthesized, or converted, into the target. Once this pathway is identified, we undertake to engineer it into our yeast strains by employing the processes discussed below.

 

3. Improving strain performance and process development. To produce the target molecules at industrial scale in a cost-effective manner, a yeast strain must be improved to increase its level of efficiency of production. Initially, we focus primarily on yield, a measure of the amount of product produced from feeding the microbe a defined amount of sugar. As we advance in our scale-up and commercial scale process development, we also seek to improve production output through improvements in strain productivity, the rate at which our product is produced by a given strain, and titer, the concentration of product in the fermentation broth. In addition, we seek to develop processes to improve production cost and recovery efficiency, including optimizing cycle-time, which is the time needed to run a full fermentation cycle, fermentation process optimization to minimize cost, and separation efficiency, a measure of the amount of product that is recovered from a fermentation run.

 

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4. Moving production from lab to commercial scale. Once we have established a pathway and verified that it can produce the target molecule, the yeast strain must be improved to increase the level of efficiency of production, and tested for performance in larger-volume facilities, before it is implemented at our larger-scale manufacturing facilities. Our infrastructure to support this scale-up process includes lab-scale fermenters (0.5 to 2 liter), operating pilot plants in our facilities in Emeryville, California and Campinas, Brazil (300 liters), and one 5,000-liter fermenters in our Campinas demonstration facility. Each of these stages mimic the conditions found in larger scale fermentation so that our findings may translate predictably from lab scale to pilot and ultimately to commercial scale.

 

Products

 

We are expanding our range of products with our partners as well as with Amyris branded products. Our partner products are divided into three market areas: Health and Nutrition, Personal Care and Performance Materials. Independently, we have formulated end-user products such as our Biossance™ brand skin care products and products that are based on Biofene and Biofene derivatives that we sell into several markets.

 

Health and Nutrition

 

The Health and Nutrition markets include our pharmaceutical work in aiding new drug development and developing alternative cell lines to mammalian cell cultures, nutraceuticals, such as vitamins, and food ingredients. This is a fairly new area for Amyris and most of our work in these areas is still under development and have not been commercialized yet.

 

During 2016, we announced the signings of our first ingredient supply agreement and collaboration agreement for the global nutraceuticals market. Under the supply agreement, we source Biofene to our partner, which is then further processed into a nutraceutical product. In 2016, we made the first large scale shipments of Biofene to our partner, who successfully produced and sold a nutraceutical product to its customers. The availability of large volumes of Biofene as starting material enables a significant reduction in the production time, complexity and cost of producing end-use nutraceutical products. Under the collaboration agreement, we are working to create and develop additional nutraceutical compounds and, in the event we and our partner can achieve certain specified development targets, we and our partner would establish and implement a worldwide manufacturing and commercialization plan relating to such compounds.

 

Personal Care

 

The Personal Care markets include F&F ingredients, skin care ingredients and cosmetic actives. To date, we have successfully brought two F&F ingredients to market with a collaboration partner and have several other ingredients for all three areas under development.

 

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Our technology allows us to cost-effectively produce natural oils and aroma chemicals that are commonly used in the F&F market. Many of the natural ingredients used in the F&F market are expensive because there is limited supply and the synthetic alternatives require complex chemical conversions. We offer F&F companies a natural route to procure these high-value ingredients without sacrificing cost or quality.

 

In late 2013, we commenced commercial production of our first F&F ingredient for a range of applications, from perfumes to laundry detergent, which is marketed by a collaboration partner which is a global F&F leader. In 2014, we completed our first production campaign of this ingredient at our Brotas biorefinery and shipped it to this collaboration partner. In late 2015, we commenced production and initial sales of our second F&F ingredient to the same collaboration partner.

 

We are currently working to develop and commercialize a variety of F&F ingredients that are either direct fermentation products or derivatives of fermentation products. Two of our Personal Care collaboration partners launched new products in 2016 using ingredients supplied by Amyris via our proprietary fermentation process. Both of these products have generated significant interest for use in consumer products. In addition, during 2016 we also completed R&D on two other ingredients and began scale-up work for commercialization.

 

Performance Materials

 

The Performance Materials markets consist consists of specialty chemicals used to produce products such as polymers, lubricants, solvents and transportation fuels.

 

Solvents

 

We have developed a best-in-class renewable solvent produced from farnesene. In addition to addressing regulatory and safety concerns over Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), our solvent product, which we market under the brand Myralene®, offers strong performance and environmental attributes. In 2015, we received approval from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to market and began commercializing Myralene®-based cleaning products as industrial cleaners for the auto service industry and other industrial applications.

 

Polymers

 

Our partners are developing applications for our farnesene that include high-performance polymers used in tires and other end-uses. In 2011, we began collaborating with Kuraray with an initial focus on using farnesene-based polymers to replace petroleum-derived additives in tires. During the collaboration, Kuraray developed farnesene-based liquid rubber (LFR), a tire additive that has superior cold and wet-grip properties for better performance. LFR reacts with tire rubber more easily than traditional materials and strengthens adhesion of rubber components to improve tire shape, stability and performance. In connection with our collaboration with Kuraray, multiple leading tire manufacturers have conducted and are continuing to conduct performance tests of this liquid rubber in tire formulations, and one such manufacturer, Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd., has adopted LFR as a performance enhancing additive for use in the production of certain of its tires. Also, during this period, Kuraray produced and began customer sampling and product evaluation for a new category of elastomer, Hydrogenated Styrenic Farnesene Copolymer (HSFC), which has demonstrated performance attributes that open opportunities for vibration-dampening product applications.

 

  9  
 

Cray Valley, a division of Total, has developed a new farnesene-based addition to its line of Wingtack ® hydrocarbon resins. This product not only represents their first such product based on a renewable feedstock, rather than traditional petroleum based hydrocarbons, but also offers unique performance attributes. These attributes expand the scope of the product line’s applications as tackifying additives to enhance the properties of a broad range of elastomers, including SIS, SBS, polyisoprene, butyl rubber, EPDM and SBR materials, as well as hot melt and hot melt pressure sensitive adhesives.

 

Lubricants

 

Base oils are the building blocks of lubricating oils and are currently derived from the crude oil refining process. Additives are materials added to base oils to change their properties, characteristics and/or performance (e.g., anti-foam, anti-wear, corrosion inhibitor, detergent, dispersant, pour point depressant, anti-oxidant, or friction modifier). Lubricants are manufactured by combining a base oil with additives required by lubricant product applications, including engine oils, gear oils, hydraulic oils and turbine oils. Farnesene may be chemically modified to serve as a base oil, additive and/or lubricant. The high-purity synthetic base oil and additive molecules that can be made from Biofene enable lubricant products to perform in harsh environments under extremes of temperature, moisture, dirt and/or wear.

 

We are pursuing the base oils and lubricants market through our joint venture Novvi. Additional details regarding Novvi are provided below under “Business-Joint Ventures.”

 

Solvents

 

We have developed a best-in-class renewable solvent produced from farnesene. In addition to addressing regulatory and safety concerns over Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), our solvent product, which we market under the brand Myralene®, offers strong performance and environmental attributes. In 2015, we received approval from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to market and began commercializing Myralene®-based cleaning products as industrial cleaners for the auto service industry and other industrial applications.

 

Transportation Fuels

 

We have partnered with Total to develop renewable transportation fuels from farnesene. Under such partnership, we produce renewable diesel (a farnesene derivative referred to as farnesane) and jet fuel that delivers energy density, engine performance and storage properties comparable to the best petroleum fuels today.

 

Jet Fuel . Our drop-in, renewable jet fuel is compliant with Jet A/A-1 fuel specifications and outperforms conventional petroleum-derived fuel in a range of performance metrics, including fit for purpose and greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, without compromising on performance or quality. Our renewable jet fuel is approved for use at a 10% blend level with petroleum jet fuel globally and for use by the US military.

 

Diesel . Our renewable diesel’s properties are superior to those of petroleum diesel, allowing it to be used as a drop-in replacement practically in any diesel engine today. Our renewable diesel is approved for use in the US at up to a 35% blend with petroleum diesel and in Brazil at up to a 30% blend. The US Maritime Division and U.S. Department of Transportation have validated our diesel as a renewable blend with maritime diesel fuel.

 

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In the future, as our development efforts with Total allow us to produce fuels at lower costs, we expect that our farnesane-based fuels business will be conducted through a joint venture we have established with Total (described in more detail below under “Business-Joint Ventures”). We have been limiting jet fuel and diesel sales in recent periods as sales of our fuels products have not been cost-effective given the current costs of producing farnesene and current market prices for petroleum fuels.

 

Amyris Branded Product Markets

 

Through basic chemical finishing steps, we are able to convert our farnesene molecule into squalane, which is used today as a premium emollient in cosmetics and other personal care products. We believe that our Neossance squalane offers performance attributes equal or superior to those of squalane derived from conventional sources. The ingredient traditionally has been manufactured from olive oil or extracted from deep-sea shark liver oil, which requires that the shark be killed in order to harvest its liver oil. The relatively high price and unstable supply of squalane in the past meant that its use was generally limited to luxury products or small quantities in mass-market product formulations. With our ability to produce a reliable supply of low-cost squalane that eliminates the need to harvest shark liver oil, we offer this ingredient at a price that we believe will drive increasing adoption by formulators. In addition to Neossance squalane, we offer a second, lower-cost emollient, Neossance hemisqualane, for the cosmetics market. In December 2016, we formed a joint venture for our Neossance business with Nikko, in which we hold a 50% interest. See below under “Business-Joint Ventures” for more information regarding our Neossance joint venture. The joint venture currently has Neossance emollient supply agreements with several regional distributors, including those with locations in Japan, South Korea, Europe, Brazil and North America, and, in some cases, directly with cosmetics formulators, which we transferred to the joint venture during the formation process.

 

In addition, in 2015 we launched our own consumer brand, Biossance TM skin care products, featuring our Biofene-derived squalane. Under our Biossance TM brand, we market and sell our products directly to retailers and consumers, initially in the United States. Biossance was initially sold solely through our ecommerce branded website and in 2016, we expanded the product line to include an expansive line of high-performance skin care products and opened up sales through Home Shopping Network (HSN). In October 2016, we announced our Biossance product line would begin to be carried at Sephora in 2017. In February 2017, we launched a full squalane based consumer cosmetic line at participating Sephora stores and Sephora online. All of the products are based on Amyris’s commitment to No Compromise TM . Since the launch, sales have grown, and with Sephora’s partnership, we are looking to expand to more stores.

 

Collaborations

 

We believe that our leadership in the synthetic biology sector is demonstrated by collaboration partners who come to us to access our synthetic biology platform and industrial fermentation expertise. Together we seek to reduce environmental impact, enhance performance, reduce supply and price volatility, and improve profit margins. Our partners include Total, chemical companies such as Braskem S.A. (Braskem) and Kuraray, F&F companies such as Firmenich S.A. (Firmenich) and Givaudan International, SA (Givaudan), agricultural processing companies such as China National Cereals, Oils, and Foodstuff Corporation, nutraceutical companies such as Nenter & Co., Inc. (Nenter) and pharmaceutical companies such as Biogen, Inc. and Janssen Pharmaceutical (Janssen). Our work has also been funded by the U.S. government, including the Department of Energy (DOE) and DARPA, to develop technologies and processes capable of improving the ability to utilize biotechnology for the production of a broader range of molecules.

 

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In 2016, Amyris entered into a partnership in the field of cosmetic actives and completed the engineering of a yeast strain that can produce the first target in this space at significantly reduced cost. This will enable our partner to expand the market for this molecule into new applications and products. The speed to market for this ingredient reinforces the value proposition and strength of the Amyris technology platform and Amyris’s ability to scale up products.

 

In addition to our collaborations for co-development of Health and Nutrition, Personal Care and Performance Material products, we have established collaborations and joint ventures for the development and commercialization of commodity products that will require larger investment of capital and longer lead times for commercialization than our existing portfolio. For example, we have established a collaboration and joint venture with Total to commercialize Biofene-based diesel and jet fuels, as described in more detail below. In connection with this arrangement, Total has provided substantial funding for Biofene research and development. In addition to this arrangement with Total, we have established our Novvi joint venture with Cosan, ARG and Chevron for the worldwide development, production and commercialization of renewable base oils for the automotive, industrial and commercial lubricants markets. In December 2016, we formed a joint venture for our Neossance business with Nikko, as discussed below. Additionally, Amyris's proprietary synthetic biology platform may be used to provide the pharmaceutical industry with an integrated discovery and production process for therapeutic compounds for which a natural source is scarce or unavailable, or for which chemical synthesis is not cost-effective.

 

In 2016, we established and developed collaboration relationships with pharmaceutical partners such as Biogen in order to develop an alternative cell line to mammalian cell cultures for the production of recombinant proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies. We also initiated two µPharm TM projects that utilize Amyris’s proprietary technology to develop customized libraries of natural and natural-like compounds for our partners’ selected targets.

 

Joint Ventures

 

Our business strategy is to generally focus our direct commercialization efforts on higher-value, lower-volume markets while establishing joint ventures to pursue our lower-margin, higher-volume commodity products, including for the commodity fuels and lubricants markets. We believe this approach will facilitate access to capital and resources necessary to support large-scale production and global distribution for our large-market commodity products as we continually improve our technology advantages and costs of production.

 

Total Amyris BioSolutions B.V.

 

We have entered into a series of agreements since 2011 to establish a research and development program and form a joint venture with Total to produce and commercialize Biofene-based diesel and jet fuels. We formed such joint venture, Total Amyris BioSolutions B.V. (TAB), in November 2013. With an exception for our fuels business in Brazil, the collaboration and joint venture established the exclusive means for us to develop, produce and commercialize fuels from Biofene. We granted TAB exclusive licenses under certain of our intellectual property to make and sell joint venture products. We also granted TAB, in the event of a buy-out of our interest in the joint venture by Total (which Total is entitled to do under certain circumstances described below), a non-exclusive license to optimize or engineer yeast strains used by us to produce farnesene for the joint venture’s diesel and jet fuels. As a result of these licenses, Amyris generally no longer had an independent right to make or sell Biofene fuels outside of Brazil without the approval of TAB.

 

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Our agreements with Total relating to our fuels collaboration created a convertible debt financing structure for funding the research and development program. The collaboration agreements contemplated approximately $105.0 million in financing (or R&D Notes) for the collaboration, which as of January 27, 2015, had been completely funded by Total.

 

In July 2015, we entered into a Letter Agreement with Total (or, as amended in February 2016, the TAB Letter Agreement) regarding the restructuring of the ownership and rights of TAB (or the Restructuring), pursuant to which the parties agreed to enter into an Amended & Restated Jet Fuel License Agreement between us and TAB (or the Jet Fuel Agreement), a License Agreement regarding Diesel Fuel in the European Union (or the EU) between us and Total (or the EU Diesel Fuel Agreement, and together with the Jet Fuel Agreement, the Commercial Agreements), and an Amended and Restated Shareholders’ Agreement among us, Total and TAB (or, together with the Commercial Agreements, the Restructuring Agreements), and file a Deed of Amendment of Articles of Association of TAB, all in order to reflect certain changes to the ownership structure of TAB and license grants and related rights pertaining to TAB.

 

On March 21, 2016, we, Total and TAB closed the Restructuring and entered into the Restructuring Agreements.

 

Under the Jet Fuel Agreement, (a) we granted exclusive (co-exclusive in Brazil), world-wide, royalty-free rights to TAB for the production and commercialization of farnesene- or farnesane-based jet fuel, (b) we granted TAB the option, until March 1, 2018, to purchase our Brazil jet fuel business at a price based on the fair value of the commercial assets and on our investment in other related assets, (c) we granted TAB the right to purchase farnesene or farnesane for its jet fuel business from us on a “most-favored” pricing basis and (d) all rights to farnesene- or farnesane-based diesel fuel we previously granted to TAB reverted back to us. As a result of the Jet Fuel Agreement, we generally no longer have an independent right to make or sell, without the approval of TAB, farnesene- or farnesane-based jet fuels outside of Brazil.

 

Upon all farnesene-or farnesane-based diesel fuel rights reverting back to us, we granted to Total, pursuant to the EU Diesel Fuel Agreement, (a) an exclusive, royalty-free license to offer for sale and sell farnesene- or farnesane-based diesel fuel in the EU, (b) the non-exclusive right to make farnesene or farnesane anywhere in the world, but Total must (i) use such farnesene or farnesane to produce only diesel fuel to offer for sale or sell in the EU and (ii) pay us a to-be-negotiated, commercially reasonable, “most-favored” basis royalty and (c) the right to purchase farnesene or farnesane for its EU diesel fuel business from us on a “most-favored” pricing basis. As a result of the EU Diesel Fuel Agreement, we generally no longer have an independent right to make or sell, without the approval of Total, farnesene- or farnesane-based diesel fuels in the EU.

 

In addition, as part of the closing of the Restructuring and pursuant the TAB Letter Agreement, on March 21, 2016, we sold to Total one half of our ownership stake in TAB (giving Total an aggregate ownership stake of 75% of TAB and giving us an aggregate ownership stake of 25% of TAB) in exchange for Total cancelling (i) approximately $1.3 million of R&D Notes, plus all paid-in-kind and accrued interest under all outstanding R&D Notes (including all such interest that was outstanding as of July 29, 2015) and (ii) a note in the principal amount of Euro 50,000, plus accrued interest, issued to Total in connection with the original TAB capitalization. To satisfy its purchase obligation above, Total surrendered to us the remaining R&D Note of approximately $5 million in principal amount, and we executed and delivered to Total a new R&D Note containing substantially similar terms and conditions other than it is unsecured and its payment terms are severed from TAB’s business performance, in the principal amount of $3.7 million. See Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details regarding such R&D Note.

 

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As a result of, and in order to reflect, the changes to the ownership structure of TAB described above, on March 21, 2016, (a) we, Total and TAB entered into an Amended and Restated Shareholders’ Agreement and filed a Deed of Amendment of Articles of Association of TAB and (b) we and Total terminated the Amended and Restated Master Framework Agreement, dated December 2, 2013 and amended on April 1, 2015, between us and Total.

 

Novvi LLC

 

In June 2011, we entered into joint venture agreements with Cosan related to the formation of a joint venture to focus on the worldwide development, production and commercialization of base oils made from Biofene for the automotive, commercial and industrial lubricants markets. In September 2011, we formed Novvi, an entity that was initially jointly owned by Cosan U.S. and us. In March 2013, we entered into additional agreements with Cosan U.S. to (i) expand our base oils joint venture with Cosan to also include additives and lubricants and (ii) operate the joint venture exclusively through Novvi. Under these agreements, Amyris and Cosan U.S. each owned 50% of Novvi, and each shared equally in any costs and any profits ultimately realized by the joint venture.

 

In July 2016, ARG agreed to make a capital contribution of up to $10.0 million in cash to Novvi, subject to certain conditions, in exchange for a one third ownership stake in Novvi. In connection with such investment, we and Cosan U.S. also agreed to make certain contributions to Novvi in exchange for receiving additional membership units in Novvi. Following the ARG investment, assuming it is made in full, and the capital contributions of us and Cosan U.S., each of Novvi’s three members (i.e., ARG, the Company and Cosan U.S.) will own one third of Novvi’s issued and outstanding membership units. In July 2016, the Novvi joint venture documents were amended in order to reflect the ARG investment in Novvi and related transactions.

 

In November 2016, Chevron made a capital contribution of $1.0 million in cash to Novvi in exchange for 20,000 membership units, representing an approximately 3% ownership stake in Novvi, which reduced the ownership interests of Amyris, Cosan U.S. and ARG pro rata.

 

SMA Indústria Química S.A.

 

In April 2010, we established SMA Indústria Química (SMA), a joint venture with São Martinho S.A. (SMSA), to build a production facility in Brazil.

 

We completed a significant portion of the construction of the new facility in 2012. We suspended construction of the facility in 2013 in order to focus on completing and operating our smaller production facility in Brotas, Brazil and in December 2015, we and SMSA entered into termination and a Share Purchase and Sale Agreement relating to the termination of the joint venture. December 2015, we and SMSA entered into a Termination Agreement and a Share Purchase and Sale Agreement relating to the termination of the joint venture. Under the Termination Agreement, the parties agreed that the joint venture would be terminated effective upon the closing of the purchase by Amyris Brasil of SMSA’s 50,000 shares of SMA (representing all of the shares of SMA held by SMSA) for R$50,000 (approximately US $15.342 based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016) pursuant to the Share Purchase and Sale Agreement, The purchase and sale of SMSA’s shares of SMA by Amyris Brasil was consummated on January 11, 2016. The Share Purchase and Sale Agreement also provided that Amyris and Amyris Brasil would have 12 months following the closing of the share purchase to remove assets from SMSA’s site, and would enter into an extension of the lease for such 12 month period for monthly rental payments of R$9,853 (approximately US$3,023 based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016. In September 2016, the parties entered into an addendum to the Share Purchase and Sale Agreement (and a corresponding amendment to the lease) which extended the deadline to remove assets from SMSA’s site to December 31, 2017.

 

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Neossance, LLC

 

In December 2016, we entered into joint venture agreements with Nikko related to the formation of a joint venture to focus on the worldwide commercialization of our Neossance cosmetic ingredients business. In December 2016, we formed the joint venture under the name Neossance, LLC (Neossance), which is jointly owned by us and Nikko. Pursuant to the joint venture agreements relating to Neossance, we contributed certain assets to Neossance, including certain intellectual property and other commercial assets relating to our Neossance cosmetic ingredients business, as well as the production facility in Leland, North Carolina and related assets purchased by us from Glycotech in December 2016. We also agreed to provide Neossance with licenses to certain intellectual property necessary to make and sell products associated with the Neossance business. At the closing of the formation of the joint venture, Nikko purchased a 50% interest in Neossance in exchange for an initial payment of $10 million and the profits, if any, distributed from Neossance to Nikko as a member in cash during the three year period following December 12, 2016, up to a maximum of $10 million. In addition, as part of the formation of Neossance, we and Nikko agreed to make working capital loans to Neossance and we further agreed to execute, and cause Amyris Brasil to execute, a supply agreement to supply farnesene to Neossance, to guarantee a maximum production cost for certain products to be produced by Neossance and to bear any cost of production above such guaranteed costs.

 

Product Distribution and Sales

 

We distribute and sell (intend to distribute and sell) our products directly, to distributors or collaborators, or through joint ventures, depending on the market. For most of our products, we sell directly to our collaboration partners, except for our consumer care products, which we sell to distributors and formulators (other than our Biossance™ brand, which we sell directly to retailers and consumers in the United States). Generally, our collaboration agreements do not include any specific purchase obligations, and sales are contingent upon achievement of technical and commercial milestones.

 

For transportation fuels in Brazil, we sell our renewable diesel directly to fuels blenders and distributors. For transportation fuels outside of Brazil, we have typically sold our products to Total or to fuels blenders and distributors. Eventually, we expect to commercialize commodity products, including sales of fuels and base oils, through our joint ventures TAB and Novvi, respectively.

 

Renewable product sales to Firmenich and collaboration revenues from Firmenich, Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc. and DARPA each accounted for more than 10% of our reported revenues in 2016.

 

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Intellectual Property

 

Our success depends in large part upon our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our products and technologies, and to operate without infringing in the proprietary rights of others. We seek to avoid the latter by monitoring patents and publications in our product areas and technologies to be aware of developments that may affect our business, and to the extent we identify such developments, evaluate and take appropriate courses of action. With respect to the former, our policy is to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing for patent applications on inventions that are important to the development and conduct of our business with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the USPTO), and its foreign counterparts.

 

As of January 31, 2017, we had approximately 500 issued U.S. and foreign patents and approximately 350 pending U.S. and foreign patent applications that are owned or co-owned by or licensed to us. We also use other forms of protection (such as trademark, copyright, and trade secret) to protect our intellectual property, particularly where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. We aim to take advantage of all of the intellectual property rights that are available to us and believe that this comprehensive approach provides us with a strong proprietary position.

 

Patents extend for varying periods according to the date of patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by patents, which can vary from country to country, depends on the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the country. See “ Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - Our proprietary rights may not adequately protect our technologies and product candidates .”

 

We also protect our proprietary information by requiring our employees, consultants, contractors and other advisers to execute nondisclosure and assignment of invention agreements upon commencement of their respective employment or engagement. Agreements with our employees also prevent them from bringing the proprietary rights of third parties to us. In addition, we also require confidentiality or material transfer agreements from third parties that receive our confidential data or materials.

 

Competition

 

We expect that our renewable products will compete with products produced from traditional sources as well as from alternative production methods that established enterprises and new companies are seeking to develop and commercialize.

 

Health and Nutrition

 

Many active ingredients in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets are made via chemical synthesis by suppliers that have a deep chemistry knowhow and production facilities, including Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) manufacturers and ingredient suppliers. We may compete directly with these companies with respect to specific ingredients or attempt to provide customers with more cost effective or higher performing alternatives. For food ingredients, we compete with companies that produce products from plant and animal derived sources as well as with companies that are also developing biotechnology production solutions to produce specific molecules.

 

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Personal Care

 

The main competition for Personal Care ingredients, such as fragrances and cosmetic actives is from products derived from plant and animal sources as well as chemical synthesis. The products derived from plant and animal sources are typically produced at a higher cost and create a greater impact on the environment compared to our products. Products derived from chemical synthesis are often produced at a low cost but have ramifications on sustainability as well as non-natural sourcing. There are also companies that are working to develop products using similar technology to us.

 

Performance Materials

 

In the Performance Materials markets that we have entered or are seeking to enter, we compete primarily with the established providers of materials currently used in products in these markets. Producers of these incumbent products include global oil companies, large international chemical companies, independent and integrated oil refiners, advanced biofuels companies and biodiesel companies, and companies specializing in specific products that directly compete with our Biofene product and its derivatives. We may also compete in one or more of these markets with products that are offered as alternatives to the traditional petroleum-based or other traditional products being offered in these markets.

 

Competitive Factors

 

We believe the primary competitive factors in both the chemicals and fuels markets are:

 

product price;

 

product performance and other measures of quality;

 

infrastructure compatibility of products;

 

sustainability; and

 

dependability of supply.

 

We believe that, for our products to succeed in the market, we must demonstrate that our products are comparable or better alternatives to existing products and to any alternative products that are being developed for the same markets based on some combination of product cost, availability, performance, and consumer preference characteristics.

 

Environmental and Other Regulatory Matters

 

Our development and production processes involve the use, generation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous chemicals and radioactive and biological materials. We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws, regulations and permit requirements governing the use, generation, manufacture, transportation, storage, handling and disposal of these materials in the United States, Brazil and other countries where we operate or may operate or sell our products in the future. These laws, regulations and permits can require expensive fees, pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit actual or potential impact of our technology on the environment and violation of these laws could result in significant fines, civil sanctions, permit revocation or costs from environmental remediation. We believe we are currently in substantial compliance with applicable environmental regulations and permitting. However, future developments including our commencement of commercial manufacturing of one or more of our products, more stringent environmental regulation, policies and enforcement, the implementation of new laws and regulations or the discovery of unknown environmental conditions may require expenditures that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. See “ Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business - We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to significant liabilities .”

 

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GMM Regulations

 

The use of genetically-modified microorganisms (GMMs), such as our yeast strains, is subject to laws and regulations in many countries. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the commercial use of GMMs as well as potential products produced from the GMMs. Various states within the United States could choose to regulate products made with GMMs as well. While the strain of genetically modified yeast that we use, S. cerevisiae , is eligible for exemption from EPA review because it is generally recognized as safe, we must satisfy certain criteria to achieve this exemption, including but not limited to, use of compliant containment structures and safety procedures. In Brazil, GMMs are regulated by the National Biosafety Technical Commission (CTNBio) under its Biosafety Law No. 11.105-2005. We have obtained approvals from CTNBio to use GMMs in a contained environment in our Brazil facilities for research and development purposes as well as at contract manufacturing facilities in Brazil. In addition, we have obtained initial commercial approvals from CTNBio for two of our yeast strains.

 

We expect to encounter GMM regulations in most if not all of the countries in which we may seek to make our products; however, the scope and nature of these regulations will likely vary from country to country. If we cannot meet the applicable requirements in countries in which we intend to produce our products using our yeast strains, then our business will be adversely affected. See “ Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - Our use of genetically-modified feedstocks and yeast strains to produce our products subjects us to risks of regulatory limitations and rejection of our products .”

 

Chemical Regulations

 

Our renewable products may be subject to government regulations in our target markets. In the United States, the EPA administers the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which regulates the commercial registration, distribution and use of many chemicals. Before an entity can manufacture or distribute significant volumes of a chemical, it needs to determine whether that chemical is listed in the TSCA inventory. If the substance is listed, then manufacture or distribution can commence immediately. If not, then in most cases a “Chemical Abstracts Service” number registration and pre-manufacture notice must be filed with the EPA, which has 90 days to review the filing. A similar requirement exists in Europe under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) regulation. See “ Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - We may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for the sale of our renewable products .” In 2013, the EPA registered farnesane as a new chemical substance under the TSCA, clearing the way for us to manufacture and sell farnesane without restriction in the United States.

 

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Fuel Regulations

 

Our diesel and jet fuel is subject to regulation by various government agencies. In the United States, this includes the EPA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). In Brazil, this includes Brazilian Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP).

 

We have completed significant steps to validate our ability to produce a market-accepted diesel product:

 

Due to the similarity of its chemical composition to that of existing petroleum-sourced diesel, our diesel product has the properties required of diesel fuel and thereby satisfies the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM International) D975 Table 1 specifications for petroleum-derived diesel fuel oils. The EPA has registered our diesel for use as a 35% blend rate with petroleum diesel in highway vehicles and non-road equipment.

 

In Europe, we obtained REACH registration for importing/manufacturing up to 1,000 metric tons of farnesane (our diesel fuel) per year and are pursuing data validation for greater volumes. REACH registration is required for the sale and use of our fuels within the applicable European jurisdictions.

 

We have received required approvals from ANP for specific uses of our diesel fuel in Brazil, have registered our diesel fuel with CARB and are pursuing registration or approvals with other relevant regulatory bodies.

 

In 2013, the EPA registered farnesane as a new chemical substance under the TSCA, clearing the way for us to manufacture and sell farnesane without restrictions in the United States.

 

Jet fuel (aviation turbine fuel) validation and specifications are subject to the ASTM International industry consensus process and the ANP national adoption process. Our farnesane is generally approved for use in jet fuel for commercial flights at blends of up to 10%. This jet fuel blend was approved by ASTM International in June 2014. ASTM International approval is required by U.S. and international regulators before jet fuel can be used commercially. In December 2014, the same jet fuel was approved by ANP, which is an additional step required for Brazil commercialization.

 

For us to maximize our access to the U.S. fuels market for our fuel products, we will also need to obtain EPA and CARB (and potentially other state agencies) certifications for our feedstock pathway and production facilities, including certification of a feedstock lifecycle analysis relating to greenhouse gas emissions. Any delay in obtaining these additional certifications could impair our ability to sell our renewable fuels to refiners, importers, blenders and other parties that produce transportation fuels as they comply with federal and state requirements to include certified renewable fuels in their products. See “ Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - We may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for the sale of our renewable products .”

 

Employees

 

As of January 31, 2017, we had 440 full-time employees. Of these employees, 280 were in the United States and 160 were in Brazil. Except for labor union representation for Brazil-based employees based on labor code requirements in Brazil, none of our employees is represented by a labor union or is covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have never experienced any employment-related work stoppages and consider relations with our employees to be good.

 

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Financial Information by Geographic Areas

 

Financial information regarding revenues and long-lived assets by geographic area is included in Note 15, "Reportable Segments” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Business Background and Available Information

 

We organized our business in July 2003 as a California corporation under the name Amyris Biotechnologies, Inc. and have maintained our headquarters and research facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area since that time. In April 2010, we reincorporated in Delaware and changed our name to Amyris, Inc. We commenced research activities in 2005, focusing on the development of an alternative source of artemisinic acid for the treatment of malaria, and launched research efforts for production of Biofene in 2006. In 2008, we began to sell third party ethanol to wholesale customers through our Amyris Fuels subsidiary, which generated revenue from the sale of ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline to wholesale customers through a network of terminals in the eastern United States. We completed our planned transition out of the ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline business in the third quarter of 2012, though we continue to maintain the Amyris Fuels subsidiary for activities related to renewable fuel sales. We first established a presence in Brazil in 2008 through the opening of offices and laboratories in Campinas. Our corporate headquarters are located at 5885 Hollis Street, Suite 100, Emeryville, California 94608, and our telephone number is (510) 450-0761. Our website address is www.amyris.com. The information contained in or accessible through our website or contained on other websites is not deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

We are subject to the filing requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). Therefore, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). Such reports, proxy statements and other information may be obtained by visiting the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information regarding the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.

 

We make our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act available free of charge through a link on the “Investors” section of our website located at www.amyris.com (under “Financial Information-SEC Filings”) as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and related notes, which could materially affect our business, financial condition or future results. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be materially and adversely harmed. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We have incurred losses to date, anticipate continuing to incur losses in the future, and may never achieve or sustain profitability.

 

We have incurred significant losses in each year since our inception and believe that we will continue to incur losses and negative cash flow from operations into at least 2018. As of December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $1,134.4 million and had cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $28.5 million. We have significant outstanding debt, a significant working capital deficit and contractual obligations related to capital and operating leases, as well as purchase commitments of $0.8 million. As of December 31, 2016, our debt totaled $227.0 million, net of discount of $42.5 million, of which $59.2 million is classified as current. Our debt service obligations over the next twelve months are significant, including approximately $18.3 million of anticipated interest payments (excluding interest paid in kind by adding to outstanding principal) and may include potential early conversion payments of up to approximately $15.8 million (assuming all note holders convert) under our outstanding 9.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (or the “2015 144A Notes”). Furthermore, our debt agreements contain various financial and operating covenants, including restrictions on business that could cause us to be at risk of defaults. We expect to incur additional costs and expenses related to the continued development and expansion of our business, including construction and operation of our manufacturing facilities, contract manufacturing, research and development operations, and operation of our pilot plants and demonstration facility. There can be no assurance that we will ever achieve or sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

 

Our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016 have been prepared on the basis that we will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. We have incurred significant losses since our inception and we expect that we will continue to incur losses as we aim to successfully execute our business plan and will be dependent on additional public or private financings, collaborations or licensing arrangements with strategic partners, or additional credit lines or other debt financing sources to fund continuing operations. Based on our cash balances, recurring losses since inception and our existing capital resources to fund our planned operations for a twelve month period, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our operating plan for 2017 contemplates a significant reduction in our net cash outflows resulting from (i) growth of sales of existing and new products with positive gross margins, (ii) reduced production costs as a result of manufacturing and technical developments, (iii) cash inflows from collaborations, (iv) access to various financing commitments and (v) strategic asset divestments. In addition, as noted below, for our 2017 operating plan, we are dependent on funding from sources that are not subject to existing commitments. We will need to obtain additional funding from equity or debt financings, which may require us to agree to burdensome covenants, grant further security interests in our assets, enter into collaboration and licensing arrangements that require us to relinquish commercial rights, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable. No assurance can be given at this time as to whether we will be able to achieve our expense reduction or fundraising objectives, regardless of the terms. If we are unable to raise additional financing, or if other expected sources of funding are delayed or not received, our ability to continue as a going concern would be jeopardized and we may be forced to delay, scale back or eliminate some of our general and administrative, research and development, or production activities or other operations and reduce investment in new product and commercial development efforts in an effort to provide sufficient funds to continue our operations. If any of these events occurs, our ability to achieve our development and commercialization goals would be adversely affected. In addition, if we are unable to continue as a going concern, we may be unable to meet our obligations under our existing debt facilities, which could result in an acceleration of our obligation to repay all amounts outstanding under those facilities, and we may be forced to liquidate our assets. In such a scenario, the value we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the value reflected in our financial statements.

 

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Our audited consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and cause investors to suffer the loss of all or a substantial portion of their investment.

 

We have limited experience producing our products at commercial scale and may not be able to commercialize our products to the extent necessary to sustain and grow our current business.

 

To commercialize our products, we must be successful in using our yeast strains to produce target molecules at commercial scale and at a commercially viable cost. If we cannot achieve commercially-viable production economics for enough products to support our business plan, including through establishing and maintaining sufficient production scale and volume, we will be unable to achieve a sustainable integrated renewable products business. Virtually all of our production capacity is through a purpose-built, large-scale production plant in Brotas, Brazil. This plant commenced operations in 2013, and scaling and running the plant has been, and continues to be, a time-consuming, costly, uncertain and expensive process. Given our limited experience commissioning and operating our own manufacturing facilities and our limited financial resources, we cannot be sure that we will be successful in achieving production economics that allow us to meet our plans for commercialization of various products we intend to offer. In addition, our attempts to scale production of new molecules at the plant are subject to uncertainty and risk. For example, even to the extent we successfully complete product development in our laboratories and pilot and demonstration facilities, and at contract manufacturing facilities, we may be unable to translate such success to large-scale, purpose-built plants. If this occurs, our ability to commercialize our technology will be adversely affected and we may be unable to produce and sell any significant volumes of our products. Also, with respect to products that we are able to bring to market, we may not be able to lower the cost of production, which would adversely affect our ability to sell such products profitably. In addition, we will likely need to identify and secure access to additional production capacity to satisfy anticipated volume requirements in 2017. There can be no assurance that we will be able obtain such capacity on favorable or acceptable terms, if at all, and even if we are successful in obtaining such capacity, there can be no assurance that we will be able to scale and operate any additional plants to allow us to meet our operational goals, which could harm our ability to grow our business.

 

We will require significant inflows of cash from financings, product sales and collaborations to fund our anticipated operations and to service our debt obligations and may not be able to obtain such funding on favorable terms, if at all.

 

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Our planned 2017 working capital needs, our planned operating and capital expenditures for 2017, and our ability to service our outstanding debt obligations are dependent on significant inflows of cash from financings, existing and new collaboration partners and renewable product sales. We will continue to need to fund our research and development and related activities and to provide working capital to fund production, storage, distribution and other aspects of our business. Some of our anticipated funding sources, such as research and development collaborations, are subject to the risk that we cannot meet milestones, that the collaborations may end prematurely for reasons that may be outside of our control (including technical infeasibility of the project or a collaborator’s right to terminate without cause), or the collaborations are not yet subject to definitive agreements or mandatory funding commitments and, if needed, we may not be able to secure additional types of funding in a timely manner or on reasonable terms, if at all. The inability to generate sufficient cash flow, as described above, could have an adverse effect on our ability to continue with our business plans and our status as a going concern.

 

If we are unable to raise additional funding, or if other expected sources of funding are delayed or not received, our ability to continue as a going concern would be jeopardized and we would take the following actions as early as the second quarter of 2017 to support our liquidity needs in 2017:

 

Effect significant headcount reductions, particularly with respect to employees not connected to critical or contracted activities across all functions of the Company, including employees involved in general and administrative, research and development, and production activities.

 

Shift focus to existing products and customers with significantly reduced investment in new product and commercial development efforts.

 

Reduce production activity at our Brotas manufacturing facility to levels only sufficient to satisfy volumes required for product revenues forecast from existing products and customers.

 

Reduce expenditures for third party contractors, including consultants, professional advisors and other vendors.

 

Reduce or delay uncommitted capital expenditures, including those relating to proposed additional manufacturing capacity, non-essential facility and lab equipment, and information technology projects.

 

Closely monitor our working capital position with customers and suppliers, as well as suspend operations at pilot plants and demonstration facilities.

 

Implementing this plan could have a negative impact on our ability to continue our business as currently contemplated, including, without limitation, delays or failures in our ability to:

 

Achieve planned production levels;

 

Develop and commercialize products within planned timelines or at planned scales; and

 

Continue other core activities.

 

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Furthermore, any inability to scale-back operations as necessary, and any unexpected liquidity needs, could create pressure to implement more severe measures. Such measures could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet contractual requirements, including obligations to maintain manufacturing operations, and increase the severity of the consequences described above.

 

Future revenues are difficult to predict, and our failure to predict revenue accurately may cause our results to be below our expectations or those of analysts or investors and could result in our stock price declining.

 

Our revenues are comprised of product revenues and grants and collaborations revenues. We generate the substantial majority of our product revenues from sales to collaborators and distributors and only a small portion from direct sales. Our collaboration, supply and distribution agreements do not usually include any specific purchase obligations. The sales volume of our products in any given period has been difficult to predict. A significant portion of our product sales is dependent upon the interest and ability of third party distributors to create demand for, and generate sales of, such products to end-users. For example, if such distributors are unsuccessful in creating pull-through demand for our products with their customers, such distributors may purchase less of our products from us than we expect. In addition, many of our new and novel products are intended to be a component of other companies’ products; therefore, sales of our products may be contingent on our collaborators’ and/or customers’ timely and successful development and commercialization of end-use products that incorporate our products, and price volatility in the markets for such end-use products, which may include commodities, could adversely affect the demand for our products and the margin we receive for our product sales, which could harm our financial results. Furthermore, we have begun to market and sell some of our products directly to end-consumers, initially in the cosmetics market. Because we have little experience in marketing and selling directly to consumers, it is difficult to predict how successful our efforts will be and we may not achieve the product sales we expect to achieve on the timeline we anticipate, if at all.

 

In addition, we have in the past entered into, and expect in the future to enter into, research and development collaboration arrangements pursuant to which we receive payments from our collaborators. Some of such collaboration arrangements include advance payments in consideration for grants of exclusivity or research and development activities to be performed by us. It has in the past been difficult for us to know with certainty when we will sign a new collaboration arrangement and receive payments thereunder. As a result, achievement of our quarterly and annual financial goals has been difficult to predict with certainty. Once a collaboration agreement has been signed, receipt of cash payments and/or recognition of related revenues may depend on our achievement of research, development, production or cost milestones, which may be difficult to predict. In addition, a portion of the advance payments we receive under our collaboration agreements is typically classified as deferred revenue and recognized over multiple quarters or years. Since our business model depends in part on collaboration agreements with advance payments that we recognize over time, it may also be difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenues through additional collaborations in any period, as revenue from such new collaborations will often be recognized over multiple quarters or years.

 

A limited number of customers, collaboration partners and distributors account for a significant portion of our revenue, and the loss of major customers, collaboration partners or distributors could harm our operating results.

 

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Our revenues have varied significantly from quarter to quarter and are dependent on sales to, and collaborations with, a limited number of customers, collaboration partners and/or distributors. We cannot be certain that customers, collaboration partners and/or distributors that have accounted for significant revenue in past periods, individually or as a group, will continue to generate similar revenue in any future period. If we fail to renew with, or if we lose a major customer, collaborator or distributor or group of customers, collaborators or distributors, our revenue could decline if we are unable to replace the lost revenue with revenue from other sources.

 

Our existing financing arrangements may cause significant risks to our stockholders and may impact our ability to pursue certain transactions and operate our business.

 

As of December 31, 2016, our debt totaled $227.0 million, net of discount of $42.5 million, of which $59.2 million is classified as current. Our cash balance is substantially less than the principal amount of our outstanding debt, and we will be required to generate cash from operations or raise additional working capital through future financings or sales of assets to enable us to repay this indebtedness as it becomes due. There can be no assurance that we will be able to do so.

 

In addition, we have agreed to significant covenants in connection with our debt financing transactions, including restrictions on our ability to incur future indebtedness, and customary events of default, including failure to pay amounts due, breaches of covenants and warranties, material adverse effect events, certain cross defaults and judgments, and insolvency. A failure to comply with the covenants and other provisions of our debt instruments, including any failure to make a payment when required would generally result in events of default under such instruments, which could permit acceleration of such indebtedness and could result in a material adverse effect on us. If such indebtedness is accelerated, it would generally also constitute an event of default under our other outstanding indebtedness, permitting acceleration of such other outstanding indebtedness. Any required repayment of our indebtedness as a result of acceleration or otherwise would lower our current cash on hand such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business or for payment of other outstanding indebtedness.

 

If we are at any time unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness when payment is due, we may be required to attempt to renegotiate the terms of the instruments relating to the indebtedness, seek to refinance all or a portion of the indebtedness or obtain additional financing. There can be no assurance that we would be able to successfully renegotiate such terms, that any such refinancing would be possible or that any additional financing could be obtained on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us. Any debt financing that is available could cause us to incur substantial costs and subject us to covenants that significantly restrict our ability to conduct our business. If we seek to complete additional equity financings, the interests of existing equity holders may be diluted.

 

In addition, the covenants in our debt agreements materially limit our ability to take certain actions, including our ability to pay dividends, make certain investments and other payments, undertake certain mergers and consolidations, and encumber and dispose of assets. For example, the purchase agreement for convertible notes that we sold in separate closings in October 2013 and January 2014, which we refer to as the Tranche Notes, requires us to obtain the consent of the holders of a majority of these notes before completing any change of control transaction or purchasing assets in one transaction or a series of related transactions in an amount greater than $20.0 million, in each case while the Tranche Notes are outstanding. The holders of the Tranche Notes also have pro rata rights to invest in, and under which they could cancel up to the full amount of their outstanding Tranche Notes to pay for, equity securities that we issue in certain financings, which could delay or prevent us from completing such financings.

 

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Furthermore, certain of our existing convertible notes, including the Tranche Notes, contain anti-dilution conversion price adjustment provisions, which may be triggered by future issuances of equity or equity-linked instruments in financing transactions. If such adjustment provisions are triggered, the conversion price of such convertible notes will decrease and the number of shares issuable upon conversion of such convertible notes will correspondingly increase. In such event, existing stockholders will be further diluted and the effective issuance price of such equity or equity-linked instruments will be reduced, which may harm our ability to engage in future financing transactions to fund our business.

 

Our substantial leverage could adversely affect our ability to fulfill our obligations under our existing indebtedness and may place us at a competitive disadvantage in our industry.

 

We continue to have substantial debt outstanding and we may incur additional indebtedness from time to time to finance working capital, product development efforts, strategic acquisitions, investments and partnerships, or capital expenditures, or for other general corporate purposes, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt agreements. Our significant indebtedness and debt service requirements could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities. For example, our high level of indebtedness presents the following risks:

 

we will be required to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts, acquisitions, investments and strategic alliances and other general corporate requirements;

 

our substantial leverage increases our vulnerability to economic downturns and adverse competitive and industry conditions and could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to those of our competitors that are less leveraged;

 

our debt service obligations could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry and could limit our ability to pursue other business opportunities, borrow more money for operations or capital in the future and implement our business strategies;

 

our level of indebtedness and the covenants within our debt instruments may restrict us from raising additional financing on satisfactory terms to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances, and other general corporate requirements; and

 

our substantial leverage may make it difficult for us to attract additional financing when needed.

 

If we are at any time unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service our indebtedness when payment is due, we may be required to attempt to renegotiate the terms of the instruments relating to the indebtedness, seek to refinance all or a portion of the indebtedness or obtain additional financing. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully renegotiate such terms, that any such refinancing would be possible or that any additional financing could be obtained on terms that are favorable or acceptable to us, if at all.

 

A failure to comply with the covenants and other provisions of our debt instruments, including any failure to make a payment when required, could result in events of default under such instruments, which could permit acceleration of such indebtedness. If such indebtedness is accelerated, it could also constitute an event of default under our other outstanding indebtedness, permitting acceleration of such other outstanding indebtedness. Any required repayment of our indebtedness as a result of acceleration or otherwise would lower our current cash on hand such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business or for payment of other outstanding indebtedness.

 

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Our GAAP operating results could fluctuate substantially due to the accounting for the early conversion payment features of outstanding convertible promissory notes.

 

Several of our outstanding convertible debt instruments are accounted for under Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, as an embedded derivative. For instance, with respect to the 2015 144A Notes, if the holders elect convert their 2015 144A Notes, such converting holders will receive an early conversion payment equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 2015 144A Notes being converted through April 15, 2019, the maturity date of the 2015 144A Notes. Our 6.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019, or the 2014 144A Notes, contain a similar early conversion payment feature, provided that the last reported sale price of our common stock for 20 or more trading days (whether or not consecutive) in a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending within five trading days immediately prior to the date we receive a notice of such election to convert exceeds the conversion price in effect on each such trading day. The early conversion payment features of the 2014 144A Notes and the 2015 144A Notes are accounted for under ASC 815 as embedded derivatives. ASC 815 requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The fair value of the derivative is remeasured to fair value at each balance sheet date, with a resulting non-cash gain or loss related to the change in the fair value of the derivative being charged to earnings (loss). We have determined that we must bifurcate and account for the early conversion payment features of the 2014 144A Notes and the 2015 144A Notes, as well as certain other features of our other convertible debt instruments, as embedded derivatives in accordance with ASC 815. We have recorded these embedded derivative liabilities as non-current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet with a corresponding debt discount at the date of issuance that is netted against the principal amount of the 2014 144A Notes, the 2015 144A Notes or other convertible debt instrument, as applicable. The derivative liabilities are remeasured to fair value at each balance sheet date, with a resulting non-cash gain or loss related to the change in the fair value of the derivative liabilities being recorded in other income or loss. There is no current observable market for this type of derivative and, as such, we determine the fair value of the embedded derivatives using the binomial lattice model. The valuation model uses the stock price, conversion price, maturity date, risk-free interest rate, estimated stock volatility and estimated credit spread. Changes in the inputs for these valuation models may have a significant impact on the estimated fair value of the embedded derivative liabilities. For example, an increase in our stock price results in an increase in the estimated fair value of the embedded derivative liabilities. The embedded derivative liabilities may have, on a GAAP basis, a substantial effect on our balance sheet from quarter to quarter and it is difficult to predict the effect on our future GAAP financial results, since valuation of these embedded derivative liabilities are based on factors largely outside of our control and may have a negative impact on our earnings and balance sheet. The effects of these embedded derivatives may cause our GAAP operating results to be below expectations, which may cause our stock price to decline.

 

If we are not able to successfully commence, scale up or sustain operations at our existing and planned manufacturing facilities, our customer relationships, business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

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A substantial component of our planned production capacity in the near and long term depends on successful operations at our existing and potential large-scale production plants. We are currently operating our first purpose-built, large-scale production plant in Brotas, Brazil and may complete construction of certain other facilities in the coming years. Delays or problems in the construction, start-up or operation of these facilities will cause delays in our ramp-up of production and hamper our ability to reduce our production costs. Delays in construction can occur due to a variety of factors, including regulatory requirements and our ability to fund construction and commissioning costs. For example, in 2012 we determined it was necessary to delay further construction of our large-scale manufacturing facility with São Martinho in order to focus on the construction and commissioning of our Brotas facility. We have since permanently ceased construction of the São Martinho facility. In 2016 we produced at capacity at our Brotas facility and will likely need to identify and secure access to additional production capacity in 2017 based on anticipated volume requirements, either by constructing a new custom-built facility, acquiring an existing facility from a third party, retrofitting an existing facility operated by a current or potential partner or increasing our use of contract manufacturing facilities. In December 2016, we acquired a production facility in Leland, North Carolina, which facility had been previously operated by our partner Glycotech to perform chemical conversion and production of our end-products, and which facility was subsequently transferred to our newly-formed joint venture with Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd. and Nippon Surfactant Industries Co., Ltd. (or collectively “Nikko”), as further described in Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, in February 2017 we broke ground on a second custom-built production facility adjacent to our existing Brotas facility. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to complete such facility on our expected timeline, if at all.

 

Once our large-scale production facilities are built, acquired or retrofitted, we must successfully commission them, if necessary, and they must perform as we expect. If we encounter significant delays, cost overruns, engineering issues, contamination problems, equipment or raw material supply constraints, unexpected equipment maintenance requirements, safety issues, work stoppages or other serious challenges in bringing these facilities online and operating them at commercial scale, we may be unable to produce our renewable products in the time frame and at the cost we have planned. Industrial scale fermentation is an emerging field and it is difficult to predict the effects of scaling up production to commercial scale, which involves various risks to the quality and consistency of our molecules. In addition, in order to produce molecules at our existing and potential future plants, we have been and may in the future be required to perform thorough transition activities, and modify the design of the plant. Any modifications to the production plant could cause complications in the operations of the plant, which could result in delays or failures in production. If any of these risks occur, or if we are unable to create or obtain additional manufacturing capacity necessary to meet existing and potential customer demand, we may need to continue to use, or increase our use of, contract manufacturing sources, which generally entail greater cost to us to produce our products and would therefore reduce our anticipated gross margins and may also prevent us from accessing certain markets for our products. Further, if our efforts to increase (or commence, as the case may be) production at these facilities are not successful, our partners may decide not to work with us to develop additional production facilities, demand more favorable terms or delay their commitment to invest capital in our production. If we are unable to create and sustain manufacturing capacity and operations sufficient to satisfy the existing and potential demand of our customers and partners, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

Our reliance on the large-scale production plant in Brotas, Brazil subjects us to execution and economic risks.

 

Our decision to focus our efforts for production capacity on our manufacturing facility in Brotas, Brazil means that we have limited manufacturing sources for our products in 2017 and beyond. While we have undertaken efforts to identify and obtain additional manufacturing capacity for 2017 and beyond, including the manufacturing facility in Leland, North Carolina and the proposed second manufacturing facility at the Brotas site discussed above, there can be no assurance that such efforts will be successful on the timelines or at the cost we require, if at all. Any production delays could have a significant negative impact on our business, including our ability to achieve commercial viability for our products and meeting existing and potential customer demand. With the facility in Brotas, Brazil, we are, for the first time, operating a commercial fermentation and separation facility ourselves. We have in the past faced, and may in the future face, unexpected difficulties associated with the operation of our plants. For example, we have in the past, at certain contract manufacturing facilities and at the Brotas facility, encountered delays and difficulties in ramping up production based on contamination in the production process, problems with plant utilities, lack of automation and related human error, issues arising from process modifications to reduce costs and adjust product specifications or transition to producing new molecules, and other similar challenges. We cannot be certain that we will be able to remedy all of such challenges quickly or effectively enough to achieve commercially viable near-term production costs and volumes.

 

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To the extent we secure collaboration arrangements with new or existing partners, we may be required to make significant capital investments at our existing or new facilities in order to produce molecules or other products for such collaborations. Any failure or difficulties in establishing, building up or retooling our operations for these new collaboration arrangements could have a significant negative impact on our business, including our ability to achieve commercial viability for our products, lead to the inability to meet our contractual obligations and could cause us to allocate capital, personnel and other resources from our organization which could adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

As part of our arrangement to build the plant in Brotas, Brazil we have an agreement with Tonon Bioenergia S.A., (Tonon), to purchase from Tonon sugarcane juice and syrup corresponding to a certain number of tons of sugarcane per year, along with specified water and vapor volumes. Until this annual volume is reached, we are restricted from purchasing sugarcane juice or syrup for processing in the facility from any third party, subject to limited exceptions, unless we pay the premium to Tonon that we would have paid if we bought the sugarcane juice from them. As such, we will be relying on Tonon to supply such juice and syrup and utilities on a timely basis, in the volumes we need, and at competitive prices. If a third party can offer superior prices and Tonon does not consent to our purchasing from such third party, we would be required to pay Tonon the applicable premium, which would have a negative impact on our production cost. Furthermore, we agreed to pay a price for the juice or syrup that is based on the lower of the cost of two other products produced by Tonon using such juice, plus a premium. Tonon may not want to sell sugarcane juice or syrup to us if the price of one of the other products is substantially higher than the one setting the price for the juice or syrup we purchase. While the agreement provides that Tonon would have to pay a penalty to us if it fails to supply the agreed-upon volume of syrup or juice for a given month, the penalty may not be enough to compensate us for the increased cost if third-party suppliers do not offer competitive prices. Also, if the prices of the other products produced by Tonon increase, we could be forced to pay those increased prices for production without a related increase in the price at which we can sell our products, reducing or eliminating any margins we can otherwise achieve. If in the future these supply terms no longer provide a viable economic structure for the operation in Brotas, Brazil we may be required to renegotiate our agreement, which could result in manufacturing disruptions and delays. In December 2015, Tonon filed for bankruptcy protection in Brazil. If Tonon is unable to supply sugarcane juice or syrup, water and steam in accordance with our agreement, we may not be able to obtain substitute supplies from third parties in necessary quantities or at favorable prices, or at all. In such event, our ability to manufacture our products in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all, would be negatively affected, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Furthermore, as we continue to scale up production of our products, through contract manufacturers, at our existing and planned production plants in Brotas, Brazil and Leland, North Carolina and at any future manufacturing facility, we may be required to store increasing amounts of our products for varying periods of time and under differing temperatures or other conditions that cannot be easily controlled, which may lead to a decrease in the quality of our products and their utility profiles and could adversely affect their value. If our stored products degrade in quality, we may suffer losses in inventory and incur additional costs in order to further refine our stored products or we may need to make new capital investments in shipping, improved storage or sales channels and related logistics.

 

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Loss or termination of contract manufacturing relationships could harm our ability to meet our production goals.

 

As we have focused on building and commissioning, acquiring or retrofitting our own plants or the plants of existing or potential partners, respectively, and improving our production economics, we have reduced our use of contract manufacturing and have terminated relationships with some of our contract manufacturing partners. The failure to have multiple available supply options for farnesene or other target molecules could create a risk for us if a single source or a limited number of sources of manufacturing runs into operational issues. In addition, if we are unable to secure the services of contract manufacturers when and as needed, we may lose customer opportunities and the growth of our business may be impaired. We cannot be sure that contract manufacturers will be available when we need their services, that they will be willing to dedicate a portion of their capacity to our projects, or that we will be able to reach acceptable price and other terms with them for the provision of their production services. If we shift priorities and adjust anticipated production levels (or cease production altogether) at contract manufacturing facilities, such adjustments or cessations could also result in disputes or otherwise harm our business relationships with contract manufacturers. In addition, reducing or stopping production at one facility while increasing or starting up production at another facility generally results in significant losses of production efficiency, which can persist for significant periods of time. Also, in order for production to commence under our contract manufacturing arrangements, we generally must provide equipment for such operations, and we cannot be assured that such equipment can be ordered or installed on a timely basis, at acceptable costs, or at all. Further, in order to establish new manufacturing facilities, we need to transfer our yeast strains and production processes from our labs to commercial plants controlled by third parties, which may pose technical or operational challenges that delay production or increase our costs.

 

Our use of contract manufacturers exposes us to risks relating to costs, contractual terms and logistics.

 

While we have commenced commercial production at our Brotas, Brazil and Leland, North Carolina plants, we continue to commercially produce, process and manufacture some specialty molecules through the use of contract manufacturers, and we anticipate that we will continue to use contract manufacturers for the foreseeable future for chemical conversion and production of end-products and, to mitigate cost and volume risks at our large-scale production facilities, for production of Biofene and other fermentation target compounds. Establishing and operating contract manufacturing facilities requires us to make significant capital expenditures, which reduces our cash and places such capital at risk. Also, contract manufacturing agreements may contain terms that commit us to pay for capital expenditures and other costs incurred or expected to be earned by the plant operators and owners, which can result in contractual liability and losses for us even if we terminate a particular contract manufacturing arrangement or decide to reduce or stop production under such an arrangement.

 

The locations of contract manufacturers can pose additional cost, logistics and feedstock challenges. If production capacity is available at a plant that is remote from usable chemical finishing or distribution facilities, or from customers, we will be required to incur additional expenses in shipping products to other locations. Such costs could include shipping costs, compliance with export and import controls, tariffs and additional taxes, among others. In addition, we may be required to use feedstock from a particular region for a given production facility. The feedstock available in such region may not be the least expensive or most effective feedstock for production, which could significantly raise our overall production cost or reduce our product’s quality until we are able to optimize the supply chain.

 

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Our operations rely on sophisticated information technology and equipment systems and infrastructure, a disruption of which could harm our operations.

 

We rely on various information technology and equipment systems, some of which are dependent on services provided by third parties, to manage our technology platform and operations. These systems provide critical data and services for internal and external users, including procurement and inventory management, transaction processing, financial, commercial and operational data, human resources management, legal and tax compliance information and other information and processes necessary to operate and manage our business. These systems are complex and are frequently updated as technology improves, and include software and hardware that is licensed, leased or purchased from third parties. If our information technology and equipment systems experience breaches or other failures or disruptions, our systems and the information could be compromised. While we have implemented security measures and disaster recovery plans designed to mitigate the effects of any failures or disruption of these systems, such measures may not adequately prevent adverse events such as breaches or failures from occurring or mitigate their severity if they do occur. If our information technology or equipment systems are breached, damaged or fail to function properly due to internal errors or defects, implementation or integration issues, catastrophic events or power outages, we may experience a material disruption in our ability to manage our business operations. Failure or disruption of these systems could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

 

If we are unable to reduce our production costs, we may not be able to produce our products at competitive prices and our ability to grow our business will be limited.

 

In order to be competitive in the markets we are targeting, our products must have superior qualities or be competitively priced relative to alternatives available in the market. Currently, our costs of production are not low enough to allow us to offer some of our planned products at competitive prices relative to alternatives available in the market. Our production costs depend on many factors that could have a negative effect on our ability to offer our planned products at competitive prices, including, in particular, our ability to establish and maintain sufficient production scale and volume, and feedstock cost. For example, see “ We have limited experience producing our products at commercial scale and may not be able to commercialize our products to the extent necessary to sustain and grow our current business, ” “ Our manufacturing operations require sugar feedstock, energy and steam, and the inability to obtain such feedstock, energy and steam in sufficient quantities or in a timely manner, or at reasonable prices, may limit our ability to produce products profitably or at all, ” and “ The price of sugarcane and other feedstocks can be volatile as a result of changes in industry policy and may increase the cost of production of our products.

 

We face financial risk associated with scaling up production to reduce our production costs. To reduce per-unit production costs, we must increase production to achieve economies of scale and to be able to sell our products with positive margins. However, if we do not sell production output in a timely manner or in sufficient volumes, our investment in production will harm our cash position and generate losses. Additionally, we may incur added costs in storage and we may face issues related to the decrease in quality of our stored products, which could adversely affect the value of such products. Since achieving competitive product prices generally requires increased production volumes and our manufacturing operations and cash flows from sales are in their early stages, we have had to produce and sell products at a loss in the past, and may continue to do so as we build our business. If we are unable to achieve adequate revenues from a combination of product sales and other sources, we may not be able to invest in production and we may not be able to pursue our business plans. In addition, in order to attract potential collaboration or joint venture partners, or to meet payment milestones under existing or future collaboration agreements, we have in the past and may in the future be required to guarantee or meet certain levels of production costs. If we are unable to reduce our production costs to meet such guarantees or milestones, our net cash flow will be further reduced.

 

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Key factors beyond production scale and feedstock cost that impact our production costs include yield, productivity, separation efficiency and chemical process efficiency. Yield refers to the amount of the desired molecule that can be produced from a fixed amount of feedstock. Productivity represents the rate at which our product is produced by a given yeast strain. Separation efficiency refers to the amount of desired product produced in the fermentation process that we are able to extract and the time that it takes to do so. Chemical process efficiency refers to the cost and yield for the chemical finishing steps that convert our target molecule into a desired product. In order to compete successfully in our target markets, we must produce our products at significantly lower costs, which will require both substantially higher yields than we have achieved to date and other significant improvements in production efficiency, including in productivity and in separation and chemical process efficiencies. There can be no assurance that we will be able to make these improvements or reduce our production costs sufficiently to offer our planned products at competitive prices or to attract and maintain collaboration partners, and any such failure could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects.

 

Our ability to establish substantial commercial sales of our products is subject to many risks, any of which could prevent or delay revenue growth and adversely impact our customer relationships, business and results of operations.

 

There can be no assurance that our products will be approved or accepted by customers, that customers will choose our products over competing products, or that we will be able to sell our products profitably at prices and with features sufficient to establish demand. The markets we have entered first are primarily those for specialty chemical products used by large consumer products or specialty chemical companies. In entering these markets, we have sold and we intend to sell our products as alternatives to chemicals currently in use, and in some cases the chemicals that we seek to replace have been used for many years. The potential customers for our molecules generally have well developed manufacturing processes and arrangements with suppliers of the chemical components of their products and may have a resistance to changing these processes and components. These potential customers frequently impose lengthy and complex product qualification procedures on their suppliers, influenced by consumer preference, manufacturing considerations such as process changes and capital and other costs associated with transitioning to alternative components, supplier operating history, established business relationships and agreements, regulatory issues, product liability and other factors, many of which are unknown to, or not well understood by, us. Satisfying these processes may take many months or years. Additionally, we may be subject to product safety testing and may be required to meet certain regulatory and/or product safety standards. Meeting these standards can be a time consuming and expensive process, and we may invest substantial time and resources into such qualification efforts without ultimately securing approval. If we are unable to convince these potential customers (and the consumers who purchase products containing such chemicals) that our products are comparable to the chemicals that they currently use or that the use of our products is otherwise to their benefit, we will not be successful in entering these markets and our business will be adversely affected.

 

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We expect to face competition for our products from providers of petroleum-based products and from other companies seeking to provide alternatives to these products, and if we cannot compete effectively against these companies or products we may not be successful in bringing our products to market or further growing our business after we do so.

 

We expect that our renewable products will compete with both the traditional, largely petroleum-based products that are currently being used in our target markets and with the alternatives to these existing products that established enterprises and new companies are seeking to produce.

 

In the markets that we are initially entering, and in other markets that we may seek to enter in the future, we will compete primarily with the established providers of ingredients currently used in products in these markets. Producers of these incumbent products include global oil companies, large international chemical companies and companies specializing in specific products, such as squalane or essential oils. We may also compete in one or more of these markets with products that are offered as alternatives to the traditional petroleum-based or other traditional products being offered in these markets.

 

With the emergence of many new companies seeking to produce products from alternative sources, we may face increasing competition from such companies. As they emerge, some of these companies may be able to establish production capacity and commercial partnerships to compete with us. If we are unable to establish production and sales channels that allow us to offer comparable products at attractive prices, we may not be able to compete effectively with these companies.

 

We believe the primary competitive factors in our target markets are:

 

product price;

 

product performance and other measures of quality;

 

infrastructure compatibility of products;

 

sustainability; and

 

dependability of supply.

 

The oil companies, large chemical companies and well-established agricultural products companies with whom we compete are much larger than us, have, in many cases, well developed distribution systems and networks for their products, have valuable historical relationships with the potential customers we are seeking to serve and have much more extensive sales and marketing programs in place to promote their products. In order to be successful, we must convince customers that our products are at least as effective as the traditional products they are seeking to replace and we must provide our products on a cost basis that does not greatly exceed these traditional products and other available alternatives. Some of our competitors may use their influence to impede the development and acceptance of renewable products of the type that we are seeking to produce.

 

We believe that for our chemical products to succeed in the market, we must demonstrate that our products are comparable alternatives to existing products and to any alternative products that are being developed for the same markets based on some combination of product cost, availability, performance, and consumer preference characteristics. With respect to our diesel and other transportation fuels products, we believe that our product must perform as effectively as petroleum-based fuel, or alternative fuels, and be available on a cost basis that does not greatly exceed these traditional products and other available alternatives. In addition, with the wide range of renewable fuels products under development, we must be successful in reaching potential customers and convincing them that ours are effective and reliable alternatives.

 

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Certain rights we have granted to Total and other existing stockholders, including in relation to our future securities offerings, could have substantial impacts on our company.

 

Under certain agreements between us and Total related to Total’s original investment in our capital stock, for as long as Total owns 10% of our voting securities, it has rights to an exclusive negotiation period if our Board of Directors decides to sell our company. Total also has the right to designate one director to serve on our Board of Directors. In addition, in connection with Total’s investments in Amyris, our certificate of incorporation includes a provision that excludes Total from prohibitions on business combinations between Amyris and an “interested stockholder.” These provisions could have the effect of discouraging potential acquirers from making offers to acquire us, and give Total more access to Amyris than other stockholders if Total decides to pursue an acquisition.

 

Additionally, in connection with subsequent investments by Total in Amyris, we granted Total, among other investors, a right of first investment if we propose to sell securities in a private placement financing transaction. With these rights, Total and other investors may subscribe for a portion of any new private placement financing and require us to comply with certain notice periods, which could discourage other investors from participating in, or cause delays in our ability to close, such a financing. Further, Total and such other investors have the right to pay for any securities purchased in connection with an exercise of their right of first investment by cancelling all or a portion of our debt held by them. To the extent Total or such other investors exercise these rights, it will reduce the cash proceeds we may realize from the relevant financing.

 

Our relationship with Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc. exposes us to financial and commercial risks.

 

In June 2016, we entered into an initial strategic partnership agreement with Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc., or Ginkgo, pursuant to which we licensed certain intellectual property to Ginkgo in exchange for a license fee and royalty, and agreed to pursue the negotiation and execution of a definitive partnership agreement setting forth the terms of a long-term commercial partnership and collaboration arrangement between us and Ginkgo, and in September 2016 we executed a definitive collaboration agreement with Ginkgo setting forth the terms of a commercial partnership under which the parties would collaborate to develop, manufacture and sell commercial products and would share in the value of such products. In connection with the entry into such commercial agreements, we received a waiver under, and subsequently entered into an amendment of, our senior secured credit facility, the agent and lender under which is an affiliate of Ginkgo, which amendment extended, subject to certain conditions which were satisfied in January 2017, the maturity of the loans under the senior secured credit facility, eliminated principal repayments under the facility prior to maturity, subject to the requirement that we apply certain monies received by us under the collaboration agreement with Ginkgo to repay the outstanding loans under the facility, and waived the covenant in the senior secured loan facility requiring the Company to maintain unrestricted, unencumbered cash in defined U.S. bank accounts in an amount equal to at least 50% of the principal amount outstanding under the facility until the maturity date. For more details on our transactions with Ginkgo, please see Note 5, “Debt” and Note 8, “Significant Agreements” to our consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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There can be no assurance that our partnership with Ginkgo will be successful, and the partnership may prevent us from pursuing other business opportunities in the future. If the partnership is unsuccessful, our ability to continue with our business plans would be adversely affected. In addition, negative developments in our commercial partnership with Ginkgo could negatively affect our relationship with the agent and lender under our senior secured credit facility, an affiliate of Ginkgo, which could adversely impact our ability to incur additional indebtedness in the future or take other actions the consent for which would be required from the agent and lender under the facility. In such event, our financial condition and business operations could be adversely affected.

 

If we do not meet technical, development and commercial milestones in our collaboration agreements, our future revenue and financial results will be adversely impacted.

 

We have entered into a number of agreements regarding the further development of certain of our products and, in some cases, for ultimate sale of certain products to the customer under the agreement. None of these agreements affirmatively obligates the other party to purchase specific quantities of any products at this time, and most contain important conditions that must be satisfied before additional research and development funding or product purchases would occur. These conditions include research and development milestones and technical specifications that must be achieved to the satisfaction of our collaborators, which we cannot be certain we will achieve. If we do not achieve these contractual milestones, our revenues and financial results will be adversely affected.

 

We are subject to risks related to our reliance on collaboration arrangements to fund development and commercialization of our products and the success of such products is uncertain.

 

For most product markets we are seeking to enter, we either have or are seeking collaboration partners to fund the research and development, commercialization and production efforts required for the target products. Typically we provide limited exclusive rights and revenue sharing with respect to the production and sale of particular types of products in specific markets in exchange for such up-front funding. These exclusivity, revenue-sharing and other similar terms limit our ability to commercialize our products and technology, and may impact the size of our business or our profitability in ways that we do not currently envision. In addition, revenues from these types of relationships are a key part of our cash plan for 2017 and beyond. If we fail to collect expected collaboration revenues, or to identify and add sufficient additional collaborations to fund our planned operations, we may be unable to fund our operations or pursue development and commercialization of our planned products. To achieve our collaboration revenue targets from year to year, we may be forced to enter into agreements that contain less favorable terms. As part of our current and future collaboration arrangements, we may be required to make significant capital investments at our existing or new facilities in order to produce molecules or other products for such collaborations. Any failure or difficulties in establishing, building up or retooling our operations for these collaboration arrangements could have a significant negative impact on our business, including our ability to achieve commercial viability for our products, lead to the inability to meet our contractual obligations and could cause us to allocate capital, personnel and other resources from our organization which could adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

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With respect to pharmaceutical collaborations, our experience in this industry is limited, so we may have difficulty identifying and securing collaboration partners and customers for pharmaceutical applications of our products and services. Furthermore, our success in the pharmaceutical market depends primarily upon our ability to identify and validate new small molecule compounds of pharmaceutical interest (including through the use of our discovery platform), and identify, test, develop and commercialize such compounds. Our research efforts may initially show promise in discovering potential new therapeutic candidates, yet fail to yield viable product candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:

 

because our research methodology, including our screening technology, may not successfully identify medically relevant product candidates;

 

we may identify and select from our discovery platform novel untested classes of product candidates for the particular disease indication we are pursuing, which may be challenging to validate because of the novelty of the product candidates or we may fail to validate at all after further research work;

 

our product candidates may cause adverse effects in patients or subjects, even after successful initial toxicology studies, which may make the product candidates unmarketable;

 

our product candidates may not demonstrate a meaningful benefit to patients or subjects; and

 

collaboration partners may change their development profiles or plans for potential product candidates or abandon a therapeutic area or the development of a partnered product.

 

Research programs to identify new product targets and candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. We may focus our efforts and resources on potential discovery efforts, programs or product candidates that ultimately prove to be unsuccessful.

 

Our collaboration arrangements may restrict or prevent our future business activity in certain markets or industries, which could harm our ability to grow our business.

 

As part of our collaboration arrangements in the ordinary course of business, we may grant to our partners exclusive rights with respect to the development, production and/or commercialization of particular products or types of products in specific markets in exchange for up-front funding and/or downstream value sharing arrangements. These rights might inhibit potential collaboration or strategic partners or potential customers from entering into negotiations with us about further business opportunities, and we may be restricted or prevented from engaging with other partners or customers in those markets, which may limit our ability to grow our business.

 

For example, under our Amended and Restated Jet Fuel Agreement with TAB and our License Agreement regarding Diesel Fuel in the European Union with Total described above, we granted TAB and Total, respectively, certain exclusive rights to produce and commercialize farnesene- or farnesane-based jet and diesel fuel in certain jurisdictions, as well as certain purchase rights. As a result of these agreements, we generally no longer have an independent right to make or sell farnesene- or farnesane-based jet or diesel fuels in such jurisdictions without the approval of TAB or Total, as applicable. If, for any reason, we would like to pursue farnesene- or farnesane-based jet or diesel fuels in such jurisdictions independently or with a third party, these arrangements could impair our ability to develop, produce or commercialize such jet or diesel fuels, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and long term prospects.

 

In the past, we have had to grant concessions to existing partners in exchange for such partners waiving or modifying their exclusive rights with respect to a particular product, type of product or market so that we could engage with a third party with respect to such product, product type or market. There can be no assurance that existing partners will be willing to grant waivers or modify their exclusive rights in the future on favorable terms, if at all. If we are unable to engage other potential partners with respect to particular products, products types or markets for which we have previously granted exclusive rights, our ability to grow our business would be harmed and our results of operations may be adversely effected.

 

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If our collaboration partners are not successful in commercializing products that incorporate our technology, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

We rely on our collaboration partners to create demand with end-users for products that incorporate our products and technologies. If such collaboration partners are unable to create such demand, we may not be able to successfully market or sell our products. In addition, while we maintain certain clawback rights to our technology in the event our collaboration partners are unable or unwilling to commercialize the products we create for them under the applicable collaboration arrangement, if our collaboration partners do not commercialize the products covered by our collaboration or supply arrangements, we may be restricted from or unable to market or sell such products or technologies to other potential collaboration partners, which could hinder the growth of our business. If we allocate resources to collaborations that do not lead to products that are commercially viable, our revenues, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

In addition, certain of our collaboration partners have the right to terminate their agreements with us if we undergo a change of control or a sale of our business, which could discourage a potential acquirer from making an offer to acquire us.

 

We have limited control over our joint ventures.

 

As a result of the restructuring of our joint ventures TAB and Novvi during 2016, as discussed above, we do not have the right or power to control the management of such entities, and our joint venture partners may take action with respect to such joint ventures which is contrary to our interests or objectives. In addition, with respect to the joint venture we formed in December 2016 with Nikko relating to our Neossance cosmetic ingredients business, while we hold a 50% equity interest in such joint venture and have a right to appoint one half of its board of directors, our joint venture partners acting together will have the right to designate the Chief Executive Officer and certain other officers, which would restrict our ability to control the operations of such joint venture. If our joint venture partners act contrary to our interest, it could harm our brand, business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, operating a joint venture often requires additional organizational formalities as well as time-consuming procedures for sharing information and making decisions, which can divert management resources, and if a joint venture partner changes or relationships deteriorate, our success in the joint venture may be materially adversely affected, which could harm our business. Furthermore, with respect to TAB, if we were to experience a change of control or fail to make any required capital contribution to TAB, Total has a right to buy out our interest in TAB at fair market value. If Total were to exercise these rights, we would, in effect, relinquish our economic rights to the intellectual property we have exclusively licensed to TAB, and our ability to seek future revenue from farnesene-based jet fuel outside of Brazil would be adversely affected (or completely prevented). This could significantly reduce the value of our product offerings and have a material adverse effect on our ability to grow our business in the future.

 

Our manufacturing operations require sugar feedstock, energy and steam, and the inability to obtain such feedstock, energy and steam in sufficient quantities or in a timely manner, or at reasonable prices, may limit our ability to produce our products profitably, or at all.

 

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We anticipate that the production of our products will require large volumes of feedstock. We have relied on a mixture of feedstock sources for use at our contract manufacturing operations, including cane sugar, corn-based dextrose and beet molasses. For our large-scale production facility in Brazil, we are relying primarily on Brazilian sugarcane. We cannot predict the future availability or price of these various feedstocks, nor can we be sure that our mill partners, which we expect to supply the sugarcane feedstock necessary to produce our products in Brazil, will be able to supply it in sufficient quantities or in a timely manner. For example, in December 2015, Tonon, one of our suppliers of sugarcane juice and syrup, filed for bankruptcy protection in Brazil, which may adversely affect its ability to supply us with sugarcane juice and syrup in the future. Furthermore, to the extent we are required to rely on sugar feedstock other than Brazilian sugarcane, the cost of such feedstock may be higher than we expect, increasing our anticipated production costs. Feedstock crop yields and sugar content depend on weather conditions, such as rainfall and temperature. Weather conditions have historically caused volatility in the ethanol and sugar industries by causing crop failures or reduced harvests. Excessive rainfall can adversely affect the supply of sugarcane and other sugar feedstock available for the production of our products by reducing the sucrose content and limiting growers' ability to harvest. Crop disease and pestilence can also occur from time to time and can adversely affect feedstock growth, potentially rendering useless or unusable all or a substantial portion of affected harvests. With respect to sugarcane, our initial primary feedstock, seasonal availability and price, the limited amount of time during which it keeps its sugar content after harvest, and the fact that sugarcane is not itself a traded commodity, increases these risks and limits our ability to substitute supply in the event of such an occurrence. If production of sugarcane or any other feedstock we may use to produce our products is adversely affected by these or other conditions, our production will be impaired, and our business will be adversely affected.

 

Additionally, our facility in Brotas, Brazil depends on large quantities of energy and steam to operate. We have a supply agreement with Cogeração de Energia Elétrica Rhodia Brotas S.A. pursuant to which we receive energy and steam in sufficient amounts to meet our current needs. However, we cannot predict the future availability or price of energy and steam. If, for whatever reason, we must purchase energy or steam from a different supplier, the cost of such energy and steam may be higher than we expect, increasing our anticipated production costs. Droughts or other weather conditions or natural disasters in Brazil may also affect energy and steam production, cost and availability and, therefore, may adversely affect our production. If our supply and access to energy or steam is adversely affected by these or other conditions, our production will be impaired, and our business will be adversely affected.

 

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The price of sugarcane and other feedstocks can be volatile as a result of changes in industry policy and may increase the cost of production of our products.

 

In Brazil, Conselho dos Produtores de Cana, Açúcar e Álcool (Council of Sugarcane, Sugar and Ethanol Producers or Consecana), an industry association of producers of sugarcane, sugar and ethanol, sets market terms and prices for general supply, lease and partnership agreements for sugarcane. If Consecana makes changes to such terms and prices, it could result in higher sugarcane prices and/or a significant decrease in the volume of sugarcane available for the production of our products. Furthermore, if Consecana were to cease to be involved in this process, such prices and terms could become more volatile. Similar principles apply to the pricing of other feedstocks as well. Any of these events could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Our large-scale commercial production capacity is centered in Brazil, and our business will be adversely affected if we do not operate effectively in that country.

 

For the foreseeable future, we will be subject to risks associated with the concentration of essential product sourcing and operations in Brazil. The Brazilian government has changed in the past, and may change in the future, monetary, taxation, credit, tariff, labor and other policies to influence the course of Brazil's economy. For example, the government's actions to control inflation have at times involved setting wage and price controls, adjusting interest rates, imposing taxes and exchange controls and limiting imports into Brazil. We have no control over, and cannot predict what policies or actions the Brazilian government may take in the future. Our business, financial performance and prospects may be adversely affected by, among others, the following factors:

 

delays or failures in securing licenses, permits or other governmental approvals necessary to build and operate facilities and use our yeast strains to produce products;

 

rapid consolidation in the sugar and ethanol industries in Brazil, which could result in a decrease in competition;

 

political, economic, diplomatic or social instability in or affecting Brazil;

 

changing interest rates;

 

tax burden and policies;

 

effects of changes in currency exchange rates;

 

any changes in currency exchange policy that lead to the imposition of exchange controls or restrictions on remittances abroad;

 

inflation;

 

land reform or nationalization movements;

 

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changes in labor related policies;

 

export or import restrictions that limit our ability to move our products out of Brazil or interfere with the import of essential materials into Brazil;

 

changes in, or interpretations of foreign regulations that may adversely affect our ability to sell our products or repatriate profits to the United States;

 

tariffs, trade protection measures and other regulatory requirements;

 

compliance with United States and foreign laws that regulate the conduct of business abroad;

 

compliance with anti-corruption laws recently enacted in Brazil;

 

an inability, or reduced ability, to protect our intellectual property in Brazil including any effect of compulsory licensing imposed by government action; and

 

difficulties and costs of staffing and managing foreign operations. 

 

We cannot predict whether the current or future Brazilian government will implement changes to existing policies on taxation, exchange controls, monetary strategy, labor relations, social security and the like, nor can we estimate the impact of any such changes on the Brazilian economy or our operations.

 

Brazil’s economy has recently experienced quarters of slow or negative gross domestic product growth and has experienced high inflation and a growing fiscal deficit of its federal government accounts. In addition, in recent months, major corruption scandals involving members of the executive, state-controlled enterprises and large private sector companies have been disclosed and are the subject of ongoing investigation by federal authorities. The final outcome of these investigations and their impact on the Brazilian economy is not yet known and cannot be predicted with certainty.

 

In addition, during the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign, President Trump made comments suggesting that he was not supportive of certain existing international trade agreements as well as that he might take action to restrict or tax products imported into the U.S. from foreign jurisdictions. At this time, it remains unclear what President Trump will or will not do with respect to these international trade agreements or U.S. trade policy. If President Trump takes action to withdraw from or materially modify international trade agreements or place restrictions or tariffs on products imported from Brazil, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

We maintain operations in foreign jurisdictions other than Brazil, and may in the future expand our operations to additional foreign jurisdictions. Many, if not all of the above-mentioned risks also apply to our operations in such jurisdictions. If any of these risks were to occur, our operations and business would be adversely affected.

 

Our international operations expose us to the risk of fluctuation in currency exchange rates and rates of foreign inflation, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

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We currently incur significant costs and expenses in Brazilian real and may in the future incur additional expenses in foreign currencies and derive a portion of our revenues in the local currencies of customers throughout the world. As a result, our revenues and results of operations are subject to foreign exchange fluctuations, which we may not be able to manage successfully. During the past few decades, the Brazilian currency in particular has faced frequent and substantial exchange rate fluctuations in relation to the United States dollar and other foreign currencies. There can be no assurance that the Brazilian real will not significantly appreciate or depreciate against the United States dollar in the future. We also bear the risk that the rate of inflation in the foreign countries where we incur costs and expenses or the decline in value of the United States dollar compared to those foreign currencies will increase our costs as expressed in United States dollars. For example, future measures by the Central Bank of Brazil to control inflation, including interest rate adjustments, intervention in the foreign exchange market and actions to fix the value of the real, may weaken the United States dollar in Brazil. Whether in Brazil or elsewhere, we may not be able to adjust the prices of our products to offset the effects of inflation or foreign currency appreciation on our cost structure, which could increase our costs and reduce our net operating margins. If we do not successfully manage these risks through hedging or other mechanisms, our revenues and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

Ethical, legal and social concerns about products using genetically modified microorganisms could limit or prevent the use of our products and technologies and could harm our business.

 

Our technologies and products involve the use of genetically modified microorganisms, or GMMs. Public perception about the safety of, and ethical, legal or social concerns over, genetically engineered products, including GMMs, could affect public acceptance of our products. If we are not able to overcome any such concerns relating to our products, our technologies may not be accepted by our customers or end-users. In addition, the use of GMMs has in the past received negative publicity, which could lead to greater regulation or restrictions on imports of our products. Further, there is a risk that products produced using our technologies could cause adverse health effects or other adverse events, which could also lead to negative publicity. If our technologies and products are not accepted by our customers or their end-users due to negative publicity or lack of public acceptance, our business could be significantly harmed.

 

Our use of genetically-modified feedstocks and yeast strains to produce our products subjects us to risks of regulatory limitations and rejection of our products.

 

The use of GMMs, such as our yeast strains, is subject to laws and regulations in many countries, some of which are new and some of which are still evolving. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), regulates the commercial use of GMMs as well as potential products produced from GMMs. Various states or local governments within the United States could choose to regulate products made with GMMs as well. While the strain of genetically modified yeast that we currently use for the development and commercial production of our target molecules,  S. cerevisiae , is eligible for exemption from EPA review because it is generally recognized as safe, we must satisfy certain criteria to achieve this exemption, including but not limited to use of compliant containment structures and safety procedures, and we cannot be sure that we will meet such criteria in a timely manner, or at all. If exemption of  S. cerevisiae  is not obtained, our business may be substantially harmed. In addition to  S. cerevisiae , we may seek to use different GMMs in the future that will require EPA approval. If approval of different GMMs is not secured, our ability to grow our business could be adversely affected.

 

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In Brazil, GMMs are regulated by the National Biosafety Technical Commission, or CTNBio. We have obtained approvals from CTNBio to use GMMs in a contained environment in our Brazil facilities for research and development purposes as well as at contract manufacturing facilities in Brazil. In addition, we have obtained initial commercial approvals from CTNBio for two of our yeast strains. As we continue to develop new yeast strains and deploy our technology at new production facilities in Brazil, we will be required to obtain further approvals from CTNBio in order to use these strains in commercial production in Brazil. We may not be able to obtain approvals from relevant Brazilian authorities on a timely basis, or at all, and if we do not, our ability to produce our products in Brazil would be impaired, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

In addition to our production operations in the United States and Brazil, we have been party to contract manufacturing agreements with parties in other production locations around the world, including Europe. The use of GMM technology is strictly regulated in the European Union, which has established various directives for member states regarding regulation of the use of such technology, including notification processes for contained use of such technology. We expect to encounter GMM regulations in most, if not all, of the countries in which we may seek to establish production capabilities and/or conduct sales to customers or end-use consumers, and the scope and nature of these regulations will likely be different from country to country. If we cannot meet the applicable requirements in other countries in which we intend to produce or sell products using our yeast strains, or if it takes longer than anticipated to obtain such approvals, our business could be adversely affected. Furthermore, there are various non-governmental and quasi-governmental organizations that review and certify products with respect to the determination of whether products can be classified as “natural” or other similar classifications. While the certification from such non-governmental and quasi-governmental organizations is generally not mandatory, some of our current or prospective customers, collaborators or distributors may require that we meet the standards set by such organizations as a condition precedent to purchasing or distributing our products. We cannot be certain that we will be able to satisfy the standards of such organizations, and any delay or failure to do so could harm our ability to sell or distribute some or all of our products to certain customers and prospective customers, which could have a negative impact on our business.

 

We may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for the sale of our renewable products.

 

Our renewable chemical products may be subject to government regulation in our target markets. In the United States, the EPA administers the Toxic Substances Control Act, or the TSCA, which regulates the commercial registration, distribution, and use of many chemicals. Before an entity can manufacture or distribute a new chemical subject to the TSCA, it must file a Pre-Manufacture Notice, or PMN, to add the chemical to a product. The EPA has 90 days to review the filing but may request additional data, which could significantly extend the timeline for approval. As a result, we may not receive EPA approval to list future molecules on the TSCA registry as expeditiously as we would like, resulting in delays or significant increases in testing requirements. A similar program exists in the European Union, called REACH. Under this program, chemicals imported or manufactured in the European Union in certain quantities must be registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and this process could cause delays or entail significant costs. To the extent that other countries in which we are producing or selling (or seeking to produce or sell) our products, such as Brazil and various countries in Asia, rely on TSCA or REACH (or similar laws and programs) for chemical registration or regulation in their jurisdictions, delays with the United States or European authorities, or any relevant authorities in such other countries, may delay entry into these markets as well. In addition, some of our Biofene-derived products are sold for the cosmetics market, and some countries may impose additional regulatory requirements or permits for such uses, which could impair, delay or prevent sales of our products in those markets.

 

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Our diesel and jet fuel is subject to regulation by various government agencies, including the EPA and the California Air Resources Board, or CARB, in the United States and Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustíveis, or ANP, in Brazil. To date, we have obtained registration with the EPA for the use of our diesel fuel in the United States at a 35% blend rate with petroleum diesel. Farnesane is also listed on the TSCA registry. In addition, ANP has authorized the use of our diesel fuel at blend rates of 10% and 30% for specific transportation fleets. In Europe, we obtained REACH registration for importing/manufacturing less than 1,000 metric tons of farnesane (for use as diesel and jet fuel) per year and are pursuing data validation to maintain such registration. Registration with each of these bodies is required for the production, import, sale and use of our fuels within their respective jurisdictions. Jet fuel (aviation turbine fuel) validation and specifications are subject to the ASTM International industry consensus process and the Brazilian ANP national adoption process. Any failure to achieve required validation and certifications for our jet fuel could impair or delay future development, production or commercialization plans, which could have a material adverse impact on our renewable product revenues.   In addition, for us to achieve full access to the United States fuels market for our fuel products, we will need to obtain EPA and CARB (and potentially other state agencies) certifications for our feedstock pathway and production facilities, including certification of a feedstock lifecycle analysis relating to greenhouse gas emissions. Any delay in obtaining these additional certifications could impair our ability to sell our renewable fuels to refiners, importers, blenders and other parties that produce transportation fuels as they comply with federal and state requirements to include certified renewable fuels in their products.

 

We expect to encounter regulations in most, if not all, of the countries in which we may seek to produce, import or sell our products (and our customers may encounter similar regulations in selling end-use products to consumers), and we cannot assure you that we (or our customers) will be able to obtain necessary approvals in a timely manner or at all. If our products do not meet applicable regulatory requirements in a particular country, then we (or our customers) may not be able to commercialize our products in such country and our business will be adversely affected.

 

In addition, many of our products are intended to be a component of our collaborators’ and/or customers’ (or their customers’) end-use products. Such end-use products may be subject to various regulations, including regulations promulgated by the EPA or the United States Food and Drug Administration. If our collaborators and customers (or their customers) are not successful in obtaining any required regulatory approval for their end-use products that incorporate our products, or fail to comply with any applicable regulations for such end-use products, whether due to our products or otherwise, demand for our products may decline and our revenues will be adversely affected.

 

Changes in government regulations, including subsidies and economic incentives, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

The market for renewable chemical products is heavily influenced by foreign, federal, state and local government regulations and policies. Changes to existing or adoption of new domestic or foreign federal, state and local legislative initiatives that impact the production, distribution or sale of renewable chemical products may harm our business. The uncertainty regarding future standards and policies may also affect our ability to develop new renewable products or to license our technologies to third parties and to sell products to our end customers. Any inability to address these requirements and any regulatory or policy changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Furthermore, the production of our products will depend on the availability of feedstock, especially sugarcane. Agricultural production and trade flows are subject to government policies and regulations. Governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry, such as taxes, tariffs, duties, subsidies, incentives and import and export restrictions on agricultural commodities and commodity products can influence the planting of certain crops, the location and size of crop production, whether unprocessed or processed commodity products are traded, the volume and types of imports and exports, and the availability and competitiveness of feedstocks as raw materials. Future government policies may adversely affect the supply of feedstocks, restrict our ability to use sugarcane or other feedstocks to produce our products, or encourage the use of feedstocks more advantageous to our competitors, which would put us at a commercial disadvantage and could negatively impact our future revenues and results of operations.

 

We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to significant liabilities.

 

We use hazardous chemicals and radioactive and biological materials in our business, and such materials are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these materials in the United States and in Brazil. Although we have implemented safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials and related waste products in an effort to comply with these laws and regulations, we cannot be sure that our safety measures will prevent accidental injury or contamination from the use, storage, handling or disposal of hazardous materials. In the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our insurance coverage. There can be no assurance that violations of environmental, health and safety laws will not occur in the future as a result of human error, accident, equipment failure or other causes. Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations may be expensive, and the failure to comply with past, present, or future laws could result in the imposition of fines, third party property damage, product liability and personal injury claims, investigation and remediation costs, the suspension of production, or a cessation of operations, and our liability may exceed our total assets. Liability under environmental laws can be joint and several, without regard to comparative fault, and may be punitive in nature. Furthermore, environmental laws could become more stringent over time, imposing greater compliance costs and increasing risks and penalties associated with violations, which could impair our research, development or production efforts and otherwise harm our business.

 

A decline in the price of petroleum and petroleum-based products has in the past and may in the future reduce demand for some of our renewable products and may otherwise adversely affect our business.

 

While many of our products do not compete with, and do not serve as alternatives to, petroleum-based products, we anticipate that some of our renewable products, and in particular our fuels, will be marketed as alternatives to corresponding petroleum-based products. The price of oil has fallen significantly in recent years, and accordingly, we may be unable to produce certain of our products as cost-effective alternatives to petroleum-based products. Declining oil prices, or the perception of a sustained or future decline in oil prices, has adversely affected the prices or demand for such products in the past and may do so in the future. During sustained periods of lower oil prices we may be unable to sell such products at anticipated levels, which could negatively impact our operating results.

 

Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are difficult to predict.

 

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Our revenues and results of operations could vary significantly from quarter to quarter because of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our results of operations on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Factors that could cause our quarterly results of operations to fluctuate include:

 

achievement, or failure, with respect to technology, product development or manufacturing milestones needed to allow us to enter identified markets on a cost effective basis;

 

delays or greater than anticipated expenses associated with the completion, commissioning, acquisition or retrofittting of new production facilities, or the time to ramp up and stabilize production following completion, acquisition or retrofittting of a new production facility or the transition to, and ramp up of, producing new molecules at our existing facilities;

 

impairment of assets based on shifting business priorities and working capital limitations;

 

disruptions in the production process at any manufacturing facility, including disruptions due to seasonal or unexpected downtime at our facilities as a result of feedstock availability, contamination, safety or other issues or other technical difficulties or the scheduled downtime at our facilities as a result of transitioning our equipment to the production of different molecules;

 

losses of, or the inability to secure new, major customers, collaboration partners, suppliers or distributors;

 

losses associated with producing our products as we ramp to commercial production levels;

 

failure to recover value added tax (VAT) that we currently reflect as recoverable in our financial statements (e.g., due to failure to meet conditions for reimbursement of VAT under local law);

 

the timing, size and mix of product sales to customers;

 

increases in price or decreases in availability of feedstock;

 

the unavailability of contract manufacturing capacity altogether or at reasonable cost;

 

exit costs associated with terminating contract manufacturing relationships;

 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 

gains or losses associated with our hedging activities;

 

change in the fair value of derivative instruments;

 

fluctuations in the price of and demand for sugar, ethanol, and petroleum-based and other products for which our products are alternatives;

 

seasonal variability in production and sales of our products;

 

competitive pricing pressures, including decreases in average selling prices of our products;

 

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unanticipated expenses or delays associated with changes in governmental regulations and environmental, health, labor and safety requirements;

 

reductions or changes to existing fuel and chemical regulations and policies;

 

departure of executives or other key management employees resulting in transition and severance costs;

 

our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income;

 

business interruptions such as earthquakes, tsunamis and other natural disasters;

 

our ability to integrate businesses that we may acquire;

 

our ability to successfully collaborate with business venture partners;

 

risks associated with the international aspects of our business; and

 

changes in general economic, industry and market conditions, both domestically and in our foreign markets.

 

Due to the factors described above, among others, the results of any quarterly or annual period may not meet our expectations or the expectations of our investors and may not be meaningful indications of our future performance.

 

Loss of key personnel, including key management personnel, and/or failure to attract and retain additional personnel could delay our product development programs and harm our research and development efforts and our ability to meet our business objectives.

 

Our business involves complex, global operations across a variety of markets and requires a management team and employee workforce that is knowledgeable in the many areas in which we operate. As we continue to build our business, we will need to hire and retain qualified research and development, management and other personnel to succeed. The process of hiring, training and successfully integrating qualified personnel into our operations, in the United States, Brazil and other countries in which we may seek to operate, is a lengthy and expensive one. The market for qualified personnel is very competitive because of the limited number of people available who have the necessary technical skills and understanding of our technology and products, particularly in Brazil. Our failure to hire and retain qualified personnel could impair our ability to meet our research and development and business objectives and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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The loss of any key member of our management or key technical and operational employees, or the failure to attract or retain such employees, could prevent us from developing and commercializing our products for our target markets and executing our business strategy. In addition, we may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees in the future due to the intense competition for qualified personnel among biotechnology and other technology-based businesses, particularly in the renewable chemicals and fuels area. Furthermore, reductions to our workforce as part of cost-saving measures, such as those discussed above with respect to our 2017 operating plan, may make it more difficult for us to attract and retain key employees. If we do not maintain the necessary personnel to accomplish our business objectives, we may experience staffing constraints that will adversely affect our ability to meet the demands of our collaborators and customers in a timely fashion or to support our internal research and development programs and operations. In particular, our product and process development programs depend on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled technical and operational personnel. Competition for such personnel from numerous companies and academic and other research institutions may limit our ability to do so on acceptable terms. All of our employees are “at-will” employees, which means that either the employee or we may terminate their employment at any time.

 

Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.

 

We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, expansion of our business as we continue to make efforts to develop and bring our products to market. We have grown from 18 employees at the end of 2005 to 440 full-time employees at January 31, 2017. Our growth and diversified operations have placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. In particular, continued growth could strain our ability to:

 

manage multiple research and development programs;

 

operate multiple manufacturing facilities around the world;

 

develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls;

 

enhance our reporting systems and procedures;

 

recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel;

 

develop and maintain our relationships with existing and potential business partners;

 

maintain our quality standards; and

 

maintain customer satisfaction.

 

Managing our growth will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely impacted.

 

Our proprietary rights may not adequately protect our technologies and product candidates.

 

Our commercial success will depend substantially on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate legal protection for our technologies and product candidates in the United States and other countries. As of January 31, 2017, we had approximately 500 issued United States and foreign patents and approximately 350 pending United States and foreign patent applications that were owned or co-owned by or licensed to us. We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our proprietary technologies and future products are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets.

 

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We apply for patents covering both our technologies and product candidates, as we deem appropriate. However, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and defending patents on product candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States are less extensive than those in the United States. We may also fail to apply for patents on important technologies or product candidates in a timely fashion, or at all. Our existing and future patents may not be sufficiently broad to prevent others from practicing our technologies or from designing products around our patents or otherwise developing competing products or technologies. In addition, the patent positions of companies like ours are highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions for which important legal principles remain unresolved. No consistent policy regarding the breadth of patent claims has emerged to date in the United States and the landscape is expected to become even more uncertain in view of recent rule changes by the United States Patent Office, or USPTO. Additional uncertainty may result from legal decisions by the United States Federal Circuit and Supreme Court as they determine legal issues concerning the scope and construction of patent claims and inconsistent interpretation of patent laws or from legislation enacted by the U.S. Congress. The patent situation outside of the United States is even less predictable. As a result, the validity and enforceability of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. Moreover, we cannot be certain whether:

 

we (or our licensors) were the first to make the inventions covered by each of our issued patents and pending patent applications;

 

we (or our licensors) were the first to file patent applications for these inventions;

 

others will independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies;

 

any of our or our licensors' patents will be valid or enforceable;

 

any patents issued to us (or our licensors) will provide us with any competitive advantages, or will be challenged by third parties;

 

we will develop additional proprietary products or technologies that are patentable; or

 

the patents of others will have an adverse effect on our business.

 

We do not know whether any of our pending patent applications or those pending patent applications that we license will result in the issuance of any patents. Even if patents are issued, they may not be sufficient to protect our technology or product candidates. The patents we own or license and those that may be issued in the future may be challenged, invalidated, rendered unenforceable, or circumvented, and the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages. Moreover, third parties could practice our inventions in territories where we do not have patent protection or in territories where they could obtain a compulsory license to our technology where patented. Such third parties may then try to import products made using our inventions into the United States or other territories. Accordingly, we cannot ensure that any of our pending patent applications will result in issued patents, or even if issued, predict the breadth, validity and enforceability of the claims upheld in our and other companies' patents.

 

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Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries do not favor the enforcement of patents or other intellectual property rights, which could hinder us from preventing the infringement of our patents or other intellectual property rights. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in the United States or foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert patent infringement or other claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license from third parties.

 

Unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology, particularly in certain foreign countries where the local laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States or may provide, today or in the future, for compulsory licenses. If competitors are able to use our technology, our ability to compete effectively could be harmed. Moreover, others may independently develop and obtain patents for technologies that are similar to, or superior to, our technologies. If that happens, we may need to license these technologies, and we may not be able to obtain licenses on reasonable terms, if at all, which could cause harm to our business.

 

We rely in part on trade secrets to protect our technology, and our failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

 

We rely on trade secrets to protect some of our technology, particularly where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to maintain and protect. Our strategy for contract manufacturing and scale-up of commercial production requires us to share confidential information with our international business partners and other parties. Our product development collaborations with third parties, including with Total and Ginkgo, require us to share confidential information, including with employees of Total and Ginkgo who are seconded to Amyris during the term of the collaboration. While we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our or our business partners' employees, consultants, contractors or scientific and other advisors may unintentionally or willfully disclose our proprietary information to competitors. Enforcement of claims that a third party has illegally obtained and is using trade secrets is expensive, time consuming and uncertain. In addition, foreign courts are sometimes less willing than United States courts to protect trade secrets. If our competitors independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how, we would not be able to assert our trade secrets against them.

 

We require new employees and consultants to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of an employment or consulting arrangement with us. We additionally require consultants, contractors, advisors, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators and other third parties that may receive trade secret information to execute confidentiality agreements. These agreements generally require that all confidential information developed by the individual or made known to the individual by us during the course of the individual's relationship with us be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties. These agreements also generally provide that inventions conceived by the individual in the course of rendering services to us shall be our exclusive property. Nevertheless, our proprietary information may be disclosed, or these agreements may be unenforceable or difficult to enforce. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent such third party, or those to whom they communicate such technology or information, from using that technology or information to compete with us. Additionally, trade secret law in Brazil differs from that in the United States, which requires us to take a different approach to protecting our trade secrets in Brazil. Some of these approaches to trade secret protection may be novel and untested under Brazilian law and we cannot guarantee that we would prevail if our trade secrets are contested in Brazil. If any of the above risks materializes, our failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

 

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We may not be able to fully enforce covenants not to compete with and not to solicit our employees, and therefore we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of such employees.

 

Our proprietary information and inventions agreements with our employees contain non-compete and non-solicitation provisions. These provisions prohibit our employees from competing directly with our business or proposed business or working for our competitors during their term of employment, and from directly and indirectly soliciting our employees and consultants to leave our company for any purpose. Under applicable U.S. and Brazilian law, we may be unable to enforce these provisions. If we cannot enforce these provisions with our employees, we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of such employees. Even if these provisions are enforceable, they may not adequately protect our interests. The defection of one or more of our employees to a competitor could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and ability to capitalize on our proprietary information.

 

Third parties may misappropriate our yeast strains.

 

Third parties, including collaborators, contract manufacturers, sugar and ethanol mill owners, other contractors and shipping agents, often have custody or control of our yeast strains. If our yeast strains were stolen, misappropriated or reverse engineered, they could be used by other parties who may be able to reproduce the yeast strains for their own commercial gain. If this were to occur, it would be difficult for us to challenge and prevent this type of use, especially in countries where we have limited intellectual property protection or that do not have robust intellectual property law regimes.

 

If we or one of our collaborators are sued for infringing intellectual property rights or other proprietary rights of third parties, litigation could be costly and time consuming and could prevent us from developing or commercializing our future products.

 

Our commercial success depends on our and our collaborators’ ability to operate without infringing the patents and proprietary rights of other parties and without breaching any agreements we have entered into with regard to our technologies and product candidates. We cannot determine with certainty whether patents or patent applications of other parties may materially affect our ability to conduct our business. Our industry spans several sectors, including biotechnology, renewable fuels, renewable specialty chemicals and other renewable compounds, and is characterized by the existence of a significant number of patents and disputes regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Because patent applications can take several years to issue, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that may result in issued patents that cover our technologies or product candidates. We are aware of a significant number of patents and patent applications relating to aspects of our technologies filed by, and issued to, third parties. The existence of third-party patent applications and patents could significantly reduce the coverage of patents owned by or licensed to us and our collaborators and limit our ability to obtain meaningful patent protection. If we wish to make, use, sell, offer to sell, or import the technology or compound claimed in issued and unexpired patents owned by others, we will need to obtain a license from the owner, enter into litigation to challenge the validity of the patents or incur the risk of litigation in the event that the owner asserts that we infringe its patents. If patents containing competitive or conflicting claims are issued to third parties and these claims are ultimately determined to be valid, we and our collaborators may be enjoined from pursing research, development, or commercialization of products, or be required to obtain licenses to these patents, or to develop or obtain alternative technologies.

 

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If a third party asserts that we infringe upon its patents or other proprietary rights, we could face a number of issues that could seriously harm our competitive position, including:

 

infringement and other intellectual property claims, which could be costly and time consuming to litigate, whether or not the claims have merit, and which could delay getting our products to market and divert management attention from our business;

 

substantial damages for past infringement, which we may have to pay if a court determines that our product candidates or technologies infringe a third party's patent or other proprietary rights;

 

a court prohibiting us from selling or licensing our technologies or future products unless the holder licenses the patent or other proprietary rights to us, which it is not required to do; and

 

if a license is available from a third party, such third party may require us to pay substantial royalties or grant cross licenses to our patents or proprietary rights.

 

The industries in which we operate, and the biotechnology industry in particular, are characterized by frequent and extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Many biotechnology companies have employed intellectual property litigation as a way to gain a competitive advantage. If any of our competitors have filed patent applications or obtained patents that claim inventions also claimed by us, we may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the relevant patent regulatory agency to determine priority of invention and, thus, the right to the patents for these inventions in the United States. These proceedings could result in substantial cost to us even if the outcome is favorable. Even if successful, an interference proceeding may result in loss of certain claims. Our involvement in litigation, interferences, opposition proceedings or other intellectual property proceedings inside and outside of the United States, to defend our intellectual property rights, or as a result of alleged infringement of the rights of others, may divert management time from focusing on business operations and could cause us to spend significant resources, all of which could harm our business and results of operations.

 

Many of our employees were previously employed at universities, biotechnology, specialty chemical or oil companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. We may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel and be enjoined from certain activities. A loss of key research personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our product candidates, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and demand on management resources.

 

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We may need to commence litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which would divert resources and management's time and attention and the results of which would be uncertain.

 

Enforcement of claims that a third party is using our proprietary rights without permission is expensive, time consuming and uncertain. Significant litigation would result in substantial costs, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us and would divert management's attention from our business objectives. In addition, an adverse outcome in litigation could result in a substantial loss of our proprietary rights and we may lose our ability to exclude others from practicing our technology or producing our product candidates.

 

The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology and/or bioindustrial technologies. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Moreover, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate.

 

We do not have exclusive rights to intellectual property we develop under U.S. federally funded research grants and contracts, including with DARPA and DOE, and we could ultimately share or lose the rights we do have under certain circumstances.

 

Some of our intellectual property rights have been or may be developed in the course of research funded by the U.S. government, including under our agreements with DARPA and DOE. As a result, the U.S. government may have certain rights to intellectual property embodied in our current or future products pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. Government rights in certain inventions developed under a government-funded program include a non-exclusive, non-transferable, irrevocable worldwide license to use inventions for any governmental purpose. In addition, the U.S. government has the right to require us, or an assignee or exclusive licensee to such inventions, to grant licenses to any of these inventions to a third party if they determine that: (i) adequate steps have not been taken to commercialize the invention; (ii) government action is necessary to meet public health or safety needs; (iii) government action is necessary to meet requirements for public use under federal regulations; or (iv) the right to use or sell such inventions is exclusively licensed to an entity within the U.S. and substantially manufactured outside the U.S. without the U.S. government’s prior approval. Additionally, we may be restricted from granting exclusive licenses for the right to use or sell our inventions created pursuant to such agreements unless the licensee agrees to additional restrictions (e.g., manufacturing substantially all of the invention in the U.S.). The U.S. government also has the right to take title to these inventions if we fail to disclose the invention to the government and fail to file an application to register the intellectual property within specified time limits. In addition, the U.S. government may acquire title in any country in which a patent application is not filed within specified time limits. Additionally, certain inventions are subject to transfer restrictions during the term of these agreements and for a period thereafter, including sales of products or components, transfers to foreign subsidiaries for the purpose of the relevant agreements, and transfers to certain foreign third parties. If any of our intellectual property becomes subject to any of the rights or remedies available to the U.S. government or third parties pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, this could impair the value of our intellectual property and could adversely affect our business.

 

Our products subject us to product-safety risks, and we may be sued for product liability.

 

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The design, development, production and sale of our products involve an inherent risk of product liability claims and the associated adverse publicity. Our potential products could be used by a wide variety of consumers with varying levels of sophistication. Although safety is a priority for us, we are not always in control of the final uses and formulations of the products we supply or their use as ingredients. Our products could have detrimental impacts or adverse impacts we cannot anticipate. Despite our efforts, negative publicity about Amyris, including product safety or similar concerns, whether real or perceived, could occur, and our products could face withdrawal, recall or other quality issues. In addition, we may be named directly in product liability suits relating to our products, even for defects resulting from errors of our commercial partners, contract manufacturers, chemical finishers or customers or end users of our products. These claims could be brought by various parties, including customers who are purchasing products directly from us or other users who purchase products from our customers. We could also be named as co-parties in product liability suits that are brought against the contract manufacturers or Brazilian sugar and ethanol mills with whom we partner to produce our products. Insurance coverage is expensive, may be difficult to obtain and may not be available in the future on acceptable terms. We cannot be certain that our contract manufacturers or the sugar and ethanol producers who partner with us to produce our products will have adequate insurance coverage to cover against potential claims. Any insurance we do maintain may not provide adequate coverage against potential losses, and if claims or losses exceed our liability insurance coverage, our business would be adversely impacted. In addition, insurance coverage may become more expensive, which would harm our results of operations.

 

We may become subject to lawsuits or indemnity claims in the ordinary course of business, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

From time to time, we may in the ordinary course of business be named as a defendant in lawsuits, indemnity claims and other legal proceedings. These actions may seek, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury, employment discrimination, breach of contract, property damage and other losses or injunctive or declaratory relief. In the event that such actions, claims or proceedings are ultimately resolved unfavorably to us at amounts exceeding our accrued liability, or at material amounts, the outcome could materially and adversely affect our reputation, business and results of operations. In addition, payments of significant amounts, even if reserved, could adversely affect our liquidity position.

 

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately or in a timely manner or prevent fraud; in that case, our stockholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which would harm our business and could negatively impact the price of our stock.

 

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. In addition, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, requires us to evaluate and report on our internal control over financial reporting. The process of implementing our internal controls and complying with Section 404 is expensive and time consuming, and requires significant attention of management. We cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future. In addition, to the extent we create joint ventures or have any variable interest entities and the financial statements of such entities are not prepared by us, we will not have direct control over their financial statement preparation. As a result, we will, for our financial reporting, depend on what these entities report to us, which could result in us adding monitoring and audit processes and increase the difficulty of implementing and maintaining adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future and could lead to delays in our external reporting. In particular, this may occur where we are establishing such entities with commercial partners that do not have sophisticated financial accounting processes in place, or where we are entering into new relationships at a rapid pace, straining our integration capacity. Additionally, if we do not receive the information from the joint venture or variable interest entity on a timely basis, it could cause delays in our external reporting. Even if we conclude that our internal control over financial reporting provides reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect fraud or misstatements. Failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm discover a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, could reduce the market’s confidence in our financial statements and harm our stock price. In addition, failure to comply with Section 404 could subject us to a variety of administrative sanctions, including SEC action, ineligibility for short form resale registration, the suspension or delisting of our common stock from the stock exchange on which it is listed, and the inability of registered broker-dealers to make a market in our common stock, which would further reduce our stock price and could harm our business.

 

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If we fail to comply with our obligations as a public company, our business may be adversely affected.

 

As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses in connection with our obligations under applicable securities laws, including the internal and external costs of maintaining the system of internal controls discussed above as well as the costs of preparing and distributing periodic public reports, including financial statements and footnotes. In addition, changing laws, rules and regulations relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including regulations implemented by the SEC and NASDAQ, increase our legal and financial costs, including costs relating to monitoring, evaluating and complying with such laws, rules and regulations. These laws, rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations and may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies, which may result in increased compliance and governance costs and the diversion of management resources. If our efforts to comply with such laws, rules and regulations are not successful, we could be subject to fines, penalties or regulatory proceedings, which can be time consuming and costly to litigate and could lead to negative publicity about our company. These events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, executive officers and other employees. If any of these risks occur, or if these requirements divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

 

In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income. If the Internal Revenue Service challenges our analysis that our existing NOLs are not subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, or if we undergo an ownership change in the future, our ability to utilize NOLs could be limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations under Section 382 of the Code. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs as of December 31, 2016, even if we attain profitability, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Loss of, or inability to secure government contract revenues could impair our business.

 

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We have contracts or subcontracts with certain governmental agencies or their contractors. Generally, these agreements, as they may be amended or modified from time to time, have fixed terms and may be terminated, modified or be subject to recovery of payments by the government agency under certain conditions (such as failure to comply with detailed reporting and governance processes or failure to achieve milestones). Under these agreements, we are also subject to audits, which can result in corrective action plans and penalties up to and including termination. If these governmental agencies terminate these agreements with us, it could reduce our revenues which could harm our business. Additionally, we anticipate securing additional government contracts as part of our business plan for 2016 and beyond. If we are unable to secure such government contracts, it could harm our business.

 

Our headquarters and other facilities are located in an active earthquake and tsunami zone, and an earthquake or other type of natural disaster affecting us or our suppliers could cause resource shortages, disrupt our business and harm our results of operations.

 

We conduct our primary research and development operations in the San Francisco Bay Area in an active earthquake and tsunami zone, and certain of our suppliers conduct their operations in the same region or in other locations that are susceptible to natural disasters. In addition, California and some of the locations where certain of our suppliers are located have experienced shortages of water, electric power and natural gas from time to time. The occurrence of a natural disaster, such as an earthquake, drought or flood, or localized extended outages of critical utilities or transportation systems, or any critical resource shortages, affecting us or our suppliers could cause a significant interruption in our business, damage or destroy our facilities, production equipment or inventory or those of our suppliers and cause us to incur significant costs or result in limitations on the availability of our raw materials, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. The insurance we maintain against fires, earthquakes and other natural disasters may not be adequate to cover our losses in any particular case.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

 

Our stock price may be volatile.

 

The market price of our common stock has been, and we expect it to continue to be, subject to significant volatility, and it has declined significantly from our initial public offering price. As of December 31, 2016, the reported closing price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Stock Market was $0.73 per share. Market prices for securities of early stage companies have historically been particularly volatile. Such fluctuations could be in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section, or other factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as:

 

fluctuations in our financial results or outlook or those of companies perceived to be similar to us;

 

changes in estimates of our financial results or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

changes in the prices of commodities associated with our business such as sugar, ethanol and petroleum or changes in the prices of commodities that some of our products may replace, such as oil and other petroleum sourced products;

 

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changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions or strategic alliances;

 

regulatory developments in the United States, Brazil, and/or other foreign countries;

 

litigation involving us, our general industry or both;

 

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

investors' general perception of us; and

 

changes in general economic, industry and market conditions.

 

Furthermore, stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected, and continue to affect, the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes and international currency fluctuations, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

 

In the past, many companies that have experienced volatility and sustained declines in the market price of their stock have become subject to securities class action and derivative action litigation. We were involved in two such lawsuits, which were dismissed in 2014, and we may be the target of similar litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management's attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

 

If our common stock is delisted from The NASDAQ Stock Market, our business, financial condition, results of operations and stock price could be adversely affected, and the liquidity of our stock and our ability to obtain financing could be impaired.

 

On June 14, 2016, we received a notice from The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC, or NASDAQ, notifying us that we were not in compliance with the requirement of NASDAQ Listing Rule 5450(a)(1) for continued listing on The NASDAQ Global Market, or the Minimum Bid Price Listing Rule, as a result of the closing bid price of our common stock being below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. In accordance with NASDAQ Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we had 180 calendar days, or until December 12, 2016, to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Listing Rule. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of our common stock had to be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days. On November 1, 2016, we received a notice from NASDAQ that we had regained compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Listing Rule. Subsequently, on December 19, 2016, we received a notice from NASDAQ notifying us that we were again not in compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Listing Rule as a result of the closing bid price of our common stock being below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. In accordance with NASDAQ Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have 180 calendar days, or until June 19, 2017, to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Listing Rule. If we do not regain compliance during such period, we may be eligible for an additional compliance period of 180 calendar days, provided that we meet NASDAQ’s continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards for The NASDAQ Capital Market, other than the minimum bid price requirement, and provide written notice to NASDAQ of our intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period. If we do not regain compliance during the initial compliance period and are not eligible for an additional compliance period, NASDAQ will provide notice that our common stock will be subject to delisting from The NASDAQ Stock Market. In that event, we may appeal such determination to a hearings panel. There can be no assurance that we will satisfy these conditions and that our common stock will remain listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market.

 

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Any delisting of our common stock from The NASDAQ Stock Market could adversely affect our ability to attract new investors, decrease the liquidity of our outstanding shares of common stock, reduce our flexibility to raise additional capital, reduce the price at which our common stock trades, and increase the transaction costs inherent in trading such shares with overall negative effects for our stockholders. In addition, the delisting of our common stock could deter broker-dealers from making a market in or otherwise seeking or generating interest in our common stock, and might deter certain institutions and persons from investing in our securities at all. Furthermore, the delisting of our common stock from The NASDAQ Stock Market would constitute a breach under certain of our financing agreements, including agreements governing our outstanding convertible indebtedness, which could result in an acceleration of such indebtedness. If such indebtedness is accelerated, it would generally also constitute an event of default under our other outstanding indebtedness, permitting acceleration of such other outstanding indebtedness as well. For these reasons and others, the delisting of our common stock from The NASDAQ Stock Market could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The concentration of our capital stock ownership with insiders will limit the ability of other stockholders to influence corporate matters and presents risks related to the operations of our significant stockholders.

 

As of January 31, 2017:

 

our executive officers and directors and their affiliates together held approximately 9% of our outstanding common stock;

 

Maxwell (Mauritius) Pte Ltd, or Temasek (which has a designee on our Board of Directors), held approximately 21% of our outstanding common stock; and

 

Total (which has a designee on our Board of Directors) held approximately 23% of our outstanding common stock.

 

Furthermore, Total and Temasek each hold certain of our convertible promissory notes, which are convertible into approximately 20,596,778 and 2,670,370 shares of our common stock, respectively, as of January 31, 2017. Total and Temasek also hold certain warrants pursuant to which they may purchase shares of our common stock. This significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies with stockholders with significant interests. Also, these stockholders, acting together, will be able to control our management and affairs and matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, and may not act in the best interests of our other stockholders. Consequently, this concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination involving us, or a change in our management or Board of Directors, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company, even if such actions would benefit our other stockholders.

 

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The concentration of our capital stock ownership also presents risks related to the operations of significant holders of our capital stock, including their international operations. For example, certain affiliates of Total that we do not control and that may be deemed to be our affiliates solely due to their control by Total may be deemed to have engaged in certain transactions or dealings with the government of Iran in 2016, for which Total has provided disclosure under Section 13(r) of the Exchange Act. Such disclosure is set forth in Exhibit 99.4 to this annual report on Form 10-K and is incorporated herein by reference. Disclosure of such activity, even if such activity is not subject to sanctions under applicable law, and any sanctions actually imposed on Total as a result of these activities or for other violations of applicable laws, such as anti-bribery laws, could harm our reputation and have a negative impact on our business.

 

In addition, our commercial partners, including Total, hold a significant portion of our capital stock and have various rights in connection with their security ownership in us. These stockholders may have interests that are different from those of our other stockholders, including commercial transactions between our company and such commercial partners or their affiliates. While we have a related-party transactions policy which requires certain approvals of any transaction between our company and a significant stockholder or its affiliates, there can be no assurance that such stockholders will act in the best interests of our other stockholders, which could harm our results of operations and cause our stock price to decline.

 

The market price of our common stock could be negatively affected by future sales of our common stock.

 

If our existing stockholders, particularly our largest stockholders, our directors, their affiliates, or our executive officers, sell a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decrease significantly. The perception in the public market that these stockholders might sell our common stock could also depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our future ability to obtain capital, especially through an offering of equity securities.

 

We have in place a registration statement for the resale of certain shares of common stock held by, or issuable to, certain of our largest stockholders. All common stock sold pursuant to an offering covered by such registration statement will be freely transferable.

 

In addition, shares issued or issuable under our equity incentive plans have been registered on Form S-8 registration statements and may be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, except for shares held by affiliates who have certain restrictions on their ability to sell.

 

Conversion of our outstanding convertible promissory notes or the exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock will dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the market price of our common stock.

 

The conversion of some or all of our outstanding convertible promissory notes or the exercise of some or all of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders. In particular, the exercise of certain warrants which have a $0.01 per share exercise price may significantly dilute the economic ownership interest of our existing stockholders. In addition, any sales in the public market of the shares of our common stock issuable upon such conversion or exercise could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. Furthermore, the existence of our outstanding convertible promissory notes (including anti-dilution conversion price adjustment provisions contained therein which could lead to additional shares of common stock being issuable upon conversion) and warrants may encourage short selling by market participants because the anticipated conversion of such notes into, or exercise of such warrants for, shares of our common stock could depress the market price of our common stock.

 

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

We do not expect to declare any dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. In addition, certain of our equipment leases and credit facilities currently restrict our ability to pay dividends. Consequently, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

 

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:

 

a staggered board of directors;

 

authorizing the board of directors to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock with rights senior to those of our common stock;

 

authorizing the board of directors to amend our bylaws, to increase the number of directors and to fill board vacancies until the end of the term of the applicable class of directors;

 

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;

 

limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;

 

eliminating the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings; and

 

requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals. 

 

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Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits, subject to some exceptions, “business combinations” between a Delaware corporation and an “interested stockholder,” which is generally defined as a stockholder who becomes a beneficial owner of 15% or more of a Delaware corporation's voting stock, for a three-year period following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder. We have agreed to opt out of Section 203 through our certificate of incorporation, but our certificate of incorporation contains substantially similar protections to our company and stockholders as those afforded under Section 203, except that we have agreed with Total that it and its affiliates will not be deemed to be “interested stockholders” under such protections.

 

In addition, we have an agreement with Total which provides that, so long as Total holds at least 10% of our voting securities, we must inform Total of any offer to acquire us or any decision of our Board of Directors to sell our company, and we must provide Total with information about the contemplated transaction. In such events, Total will have an exclusive negotiating period of fifteen business days in the event the Board of Directors authorizes us to solicit offers to buy Amyris, or five business days in the event that we receive an unsolicited offer to purchase us. This exclusive negotiation period will be followed by an additional restricted negotiation period of ten business days, during which we are obligated to continue to negotiate with Total and will be prohibited from entering into an agreement with any other potential acquirer.

 

These and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws that became effective upon the completion of our initial public offering under Delaware law and in our agreements with Total could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and result in the market price of our common stock being lower than it would be without these provisions.

 

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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

 

The following table provides the names, ages and offices of each of our executive officers as of April 17, 2017:

 

Name   Age   Position
John Melo     51       Director, President and Chief Executive Officer  
Kathleen Valiasek     53       Chief Financial Officer  
Joel Cherry, Ph.D.     56       President of Research and Development  

 

John Melo

 

John Melo has nearly three decades of combined experience as an entrepreneur and thought leader in the global fuels industry and technology innovation. Mr. Melo has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a director since January 2007 and our President since January 2008. Before joining Amyris, Mr. Melo served in various senior executive positions at BP Plc (formerly British Petroleum), one of the world’s largest energy firms, from 1997 to 2006, most recently as President of U.S. Fuels Operations from 2004 until December 2006, and previously as Chief Information Officer of the refining and marketing segment from 2001 to 2003, Senior Advisor for e-business strategy to Lord Browne, BP Chief Executive, from 2000 to 2001, and Director of Global Brand Development from 1999 to 2000. Before joining BP, Mr. Melo was with Ernst & Young, an accounting firm, from 1996 to 1997, and a member of the management teams of several startup companies, including Computer Aided Services, a management systems integration company, and Alldata Corporation, a provider of automobile repair software to the automotive service industry. Mr. Melo currently serves on the board of directors of U.S. Venture, Inc. and Renmatix Inc., and also serves as Vice Chairman of the board of directors of BayBio. Mr. Melo was formerly an appointed member to the U.S. section of the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum.

 

Kathleen Valiasek

 

Kathleen Valiasek has served as our Chief Financial Officer since January 2017. Prior to joining us, Ms. Valiasek served as Chief Executive Officer of a finance and strategic consulting firm she founded in 1994, in this capacity she worked closely with the senior management teams of fast-growing companies including start-ups, venture-backed and Fortune 500 companies. Prior to this, she served in key venture capital, real estate development and accounting roles. Ms. Valiasek holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

 

Joel Cherry, Ph.D.

 

Dr. Joel Cherry has served as our President of Research and Development since July 2011 and previously as our Senior Vice President of Research Programs and Operations since November 2008. Before joining Amyris, Dr. Cherry was Senior Director of Bioenergy Biotechnology at Novozymes, a biotechnology company focusing on development and manufacture of industrial enzymes from 1992 to November 2008. At Novozymes, he served in a variety of R&D scientific and management positions, including membership in Novozymes’ International R&D Management team, and as Principal Investigator and Director of the BioEnergy Project, a U.S. Department of Energy-funded $18 million effort initiated in 2000. Dr. Cherry holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Chemistry from Carleton College and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Biochemistry from the University of New Hampshire.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

We lease approximately 136,000 square feet of space in two adjacent buildings in Emeryville, California, pursuant to two leases. Of our space in Emeryville, we use approximately 113,000 square feet for general office purposes and lab space, and approximately 23,000 square feet comprise our pilot plant. In May 2014, pursuant to a sublease agreement and related documents, we agreed to provide Total with access to certain portions of our pilot plant facilities for a period of five years. Such subleased area is approximately 22,021 square feet and is composed of two areas, a dedicated area accessible only to Total, comprising approximately 3,671 square feet and a common area which is shared by the Company and Total, comprising approximately 18,350 square feet. Our master leases expire in May 2023 and we have an option to extend these leases for five years.

 

Amyris Brasil leases approximately 44,000 square feet of space in Campinas, Brazil, pursuant to two leases that will expire in November 2018 and October 2019. Of this space, approximately 36,000 square feet comprise a pilot plant and demonstration facility, and the remainder is general office and lab space. Amyris Brasil has a right of first refusal to purchase the space if the landlord elects to sell it and an option to extend the lease for five additional years.

 

Our first large-scale production plant commenced operations in December 2012 in Brotas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and is adjacent to an existing sugar and ethanol mill, Tonon Bioenergia S.A. (Tonon). Amyris Brasil leases approximately 800,000 square feet of space for this plant, which has six 200,000 liter production fermenters and was designed to process sugarcane juice and syrup, or their equivalent, from up to one million tons of raw sugarcane annually; this lease expires in March 2026. Amyris Brasil also leases approximately 500,000 square feet of space for a future manufacturing site; this lease expires in January 2031. In February 2017, we broke ground on a second purpose-built, large-scale production facility adjacent to our current facility in Brotas.

 

We have also secured the use of a Biofene storage tank with an aggregate capacity of 3,000 barrels or 94,500 gallons in Philadelphia. This facility provides temporary storage of our renewable farnesene prior to further processing into one of our finished products. Our current agreement is under a month-to-month lease.

 

In December 2016, we purchased a manufacturing facility in Leland, North Carolina, which had been previously operated by Glycotech to convert our Biofene into squalane and other final products. We subsequently contributed that facility to our Neossance joint venture with Nikko in December 2016. See Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details regarding our Neossance joint venture and the Leland manufacturing facility.

 

We believe that our current facilities are suitable and adequate to meet our needs and that suitable additional space will be available to accommodate the foreseeable expansion of our operations. Based on our anticipated volume requirement for 2017, we will likely need to identify and secure access to additional production capacity in 2017, either by constructing a new custom-built facility, acquiring an existing facility from a third party, retrofitting an existing facility operated by a current or potential partner or increasing our use of contract manufacturing facilities. We are currently in the process of identifying and securing such additional production capacity.

 

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

We may be involved, from time to time, in legal proceedings and claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. Such matters are subject to many uncertainties and there can be no assurance that legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business or otherwise will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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PART II

 

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Market Information for Common Stock

 

Our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Market on September 28, 2010 under the symbol “AMRS” and currently trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the same symbol. The following table sets forth the high and low per share sale prices of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Stock Market during each of the previous eight quarters.

    Price Range Per Share
    High   Low
Fiscal 2016        
Fourth quarter   $ 1.12     $ 0.58  
Third quarter   $ 0.58     $ 0.33  
Second quarter   $ 1.30     $ 0.35  
First quarter   $ 1.65     $ 1.11  
                 
Fiscal 2015                
Fourth quarter   $ 2.57     $ 1.46  
Third quarter   $ 2.62     $ 1.51  
Second quarter   $ 2.74     $ 1.55  
First quarter   $ 3.11     $ 1.56  

 

Holders

 

As of January 31, 2017, there were approximately 106 holders of record (not including beneficial holders of stock held in street names) of our common stock.

 

Dividend Policy

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant.

 

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

 

See Item 11 of Part III of this Report regarding information about securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans.

 

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Performance Graph (1)

 

The following graph shows a comparison from September 28, 2010 through December 31, 2016 of cumulative total return on an assumed investment of $100.00 in cash in our common stock, the S&P SmallCap 600 Index and the NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance. Data for the S&P SmallCap 600 Index and the NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index assume reinvestment of dividends.

 

COMPARISON OF 75 MONTH CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN

 

Among Amyris, Inc., the S&P SmallCap 600 Index, and the NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index

 

 

 

    9/28/2010   12/31/2010   12/31/2011   12/31/2012   12/31/2013   12/31/2014   12/31/2015   12/31/2016
Amyris, Inc.     100       162       70       19       32       12       10       4  
S&P SmallCap 600 Index     100       116       116       133       185       194       187       234  
NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index     100       109       64       63       119       115       106       102  

 

(1) This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing of Amyris, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

Sales of Common Stock

 

On March 27, 2013, we sold 1,533,742 shares of common stock at a price of $3.26 per share for aggregate cash proceeds of $5.0 million.

 

On April 30, 2014, we sold 943,396 shares of common stock at a price of $4.24 per share for aggregate cash proceeds of $4.0 million.

 

On July 29, 2015, we sold 16,025,642 shares of common stock at a price of $1.56 per share for aggregate cash proceeds of $25.0 million. In addition, we issued warrants for the purchase, at an exercise price of $0.01 per share, of an aggregate of 1,602,562 shares of our common stock to the purchasers of shares in the offering. The exercisability of these warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on September 17, 2015. As of December 31, 2016, 160,255 of such warrants had been exercised.

 

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On May 10, 2016, we sold 4,385,964 shares of common stock at a price of $1.14 per share for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $5 million.

 

On August 6, 2016, we issued a warrant to purchase 5,000,000 shares of our common stock, at an exercise price of $0.50 per share, to Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc. (“Ginkgo”) in exchange for the transfer of certain information technology from Ginkgo to Amyris.

 

On November 16, 2016, we issued a warrant to purchase 10,000,000 shares of our common stock, at an exercise price of $0.50 per share, to Nenter & Co., Inc. (“Nenter”) pursuant to the terms of, and as consideration for, that certain Cooperation Agreement, dated as of October 26, 2016, between Amyris and Nenter. As of December 31, 2016, such warrant had been exercised in full.

 

Sales of Promissory Notes

 

On June 6, 2013 and July 26, 2013, we issued an aggregate of $30.0 million of 1.5% Senior Unsecured Convertible Notes due 2017 (“Unsecured R&D Notes”) with an initial conversion price of $3.08 per share, subject to certain adjustments, to Total pursuant to our arrangement with Total for research and development-related funding for aggregate cash proceeds of $30.0 million. The conversion price of these notes is subject to adjustment for proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock and under anti-dilution provisions in case of certain dividends and distributions.

 

On October 4, 2013, we issued and sold a senior secured promissory note in the principal amount of $35.0 million (the “Bridge Note”) to Temasek for cash proceeds of $35.0 million. The Bridge Note was due on February 2, 2014 and accrued interest at a rate of 5.5% per quarter from October 4, 2013. The Bridge Note was cancelled as payment for Temasek's purchase of Tranche I Notes, as described below.

 

On October 16, 2013, we issued an aggregate of approximately $51.8 million of senior convertible promissory notes (“Tranche I Notes”) with an initial conversion price of $2.44 per share, subject to certain adjustments, for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $7.6 million. The remaining approximately $44.2 million of notes was paid through the cancellation of the same amount of previously outstanding convertible promissory notes held by purchasers of the Tranche I Notes. The conversion price of the Tranche I Notes is subject to adjustment (a) according to proportional adjustments to our outstanding common stock in case of certain dividends and distributions, (b) according to anti-dilution provisions, and (c) with respect to Tranche I Notes held by any purchaser other than Total, in the event that Total exchanges existing convertible notes for new securities of the company in connection with future financing transactions in excess of its pro rata amount. The conversion price of the Tranche I Notes was reduced to approximately $1.42 per share upon the completion of a private placement of common stock and warrants to purchase common stock in July 2015, as described above. Following our private offering of unsecured promissory notes and warrants in February 2016, as described below, the conversion price of the Tranche I Notes was adjusted to $1.40 per share, and following our sale of shares of common stock in May 2016, as described above, the conversion price of the Tranche I Notes was further adjusted to $1.14 per share.

 

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On December 2, 2013, in connection with our entry into agreements establishing our joint venture with Total, we exchanged the approximately $69.0 million of then-outstanding Unsecured R&D Notes held by Total for replacement 1.5% Senior Secured Convertible Notes due 2017 (“Secured R&D Notes” and, together with the Unsecured R&D Notes, “R&D Notes”), in principal amounts equal to the principal amount of the cancelled notes. The terms of the Secured R&D Notes were substantially similar to the terms of the Unsecured R&D Notes being exchanged, including conversion prices and terms, other than the security interest granted thereunder.

 

On January 15, 2014, we issued an aggregate of approximately $34.0 million of senior convertible promissory notes (“Tranche II Notes”) with an initial conversion price of $2.87 per share, subject to certain adjustments, for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $28.0 million. The remaining approximately $6.0 million of notes was paid through the cancellation of the same amount of previously outstanding convertible promissory notes held by a purchaser of the Tranche II Notes. The conversion price of the Tranche II Notes is subject to adjustment (a) according to proportional adjustments to our outstanding common stock in case of certain dividends and distributions, (b) according to anti-dilution provisions, and (c) with respect to Tranche II Notes held by any purchaser other than Total, in the event that Total exchanges existing convertible notes for new securities of the company in connection with future financing transactions in excess of its pro rata amount.  The conversion price of the Tranche II Notes was reduced to approximately $1.42 per share upon the completion of a private placement of common stock and warrants to purchase common stock in July 2015, as described above. Following our private offering of unsecured promissory notes and warrants in February 2016, as described below, the conversion price of the Tranche II Notes was adjusted to $1.40 per share, and following our sale of shares of common stock in May 2016, as described above, the conversion price of the Tranche II Notes was further adjusted to $1.14 per share.

 

On May 29, 2014, we issued an aggregate of $75.0 million of our 6.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (“2014 144A Notes”) with an initial conversion rate of 267.0370 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2014 144A Notes (representing an initial effective conversion price of approximately $3.74 per share of common stock), subject to certain adjustments, for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $71.5 million, after payment of the initial purchaser’s discount and offering expenses. The 2014 144A Notes are convertible into shares of the company's common stock at any time prior to the close of business on May 15, 2019. For any conversion on or after May 15, 2015, in the event that the last reported sale price of the company’s common stock for 20 or more trading days (whether or not consecutive) in a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending within five trading days immediately prior to the date the company receives a notice of conversion exceeds the conversion price of $3.74 per share on each such trading day, the holders, in addition to the shares deliverable upon conversion, will be entitled to receive a cash payment equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 2014 144A Notes being converted from the conversion date to the earlier of the date that is three years after the date the company receives such notice of conversion and maturity (May 15, 2019), which will be computed using a discount rate of 0.75%. In addition, holders of the 2014 144A Notes who convert their 2014 144A Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change will, under certain circumstances, be entitled to an increase in the conversion rate. The conversion rate of the 2014 144A Notes is subject to adjustment according to proportional adjustments to our outstanding common stock in case of certain dividends and distributions.

 

On July 31, 2014 and January 27, 2015, we issued an aggregate of $21.7 million of additional Secured R&D Notes with an initial conversion price of $4.11 per share, subject to certain adjustments, to Total pursuant to our arrangement with Total for research and development funding, for aggregate cash proceeds of $21.7 million. The conversion price of these notes is subject to adjustment for proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock and under anti-dilution provisions in case of certain dividends and distributions.

 

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On July 29, 2015, Temasek exchanged its Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes and Total exchanged $70 million in principal amount of R&D Notes for shares of the company's common stock (the “Exchange”). The exchange price was $2.30 per share (Exchange Price) and was paid by the exchange and cancellation of outstanding principal of Tranche I Notes, Tranche II Notes and R&D Notes, as the case may be, including paid-in-kind and accrued interest in the case of Temasek's Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes. Temasek exchanged and canceled all Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes held by it, having an aggregate principal amount of $71.0 million, in exchange for approximately 30.86 million shares of our common stock. Total exchanged and canceled all but $5.0 million of R&D Notes held by it, such cancelled notes having in an aggregate principal amount of $70 million, in exchange for approximately 30.4 million shares of our common stock. In addition, in connection with the Exchange, on July 29, 2015, Total received the following warrants: (i) a warrant to purchase 18,924,191 shares of the company's Common Stock (the “Total Funding Warrant”); and (ii) a warrant to purchase 2,000,000 shares of the company's common stock that would only be exercisable if the company failed, as of March 1, 2017, to achieve a target cost per liter to manufacture farnesene (Total R&D Warrant). The Total Funding Warrant and the Total R&D Warrant are collectively referred to as the "Total Warrants." Additionally, in connection with the Exchange, on July 29, 2015, Temasek received the following warrants: (i) a warrant to purchase 14,677,861 shares of the company's common stock (the “Temasek Exchange Warrant”); (ii) a warrant exercisable for that number of shares of the company's common stock equal to (1) (A) the number of shares for which Total exercises the Total Funding Warrant plus (B) the number of additional shares for which the Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes remaining outstanding following the completion of the Exchange may become convertible as a result of a reduction in the conversion price of such remaining notes as a result of and/or subsequent to the date of the Exchange plus (C) that number of additional shares in excess of 2,000,000, if any, for which the Total R&D Warrant becomes exercisable multiplied by a fraction equal to 30.6% divided by 69.4% plus (2) (A) the number of any additional shares for which the 2014 144A Notes may become convertible as a result of a reduction to the conversion price of the 2014 144A Notes multiplied by (B) a fraction equal to 13.3% divided by 86.7% (the “Temasek Funding Warrant”); and (iii) a warrant exercisable for that number of shares of the company's common stock equal to 880,339 multiplied by a fraction equal to the number of shares for which Total exercises the Total R&D Warrant divided by 2,000,000 (the “Temasek R&D Warrant”). As of December 31, 2016, the Total Funding Warrant and the Temasek Exchange Warrant had been fully exercised and Temasek had exercised the Temasek Funding Warrant with respect to 12,700,244 shares of common stock. Neither the Total R&D Warrant nor the Temasek R&D Warrant were exercisable as of December 31, 2016. See Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details regarding the Total R&D Warrant and Temasek R&D Warrant. Warrants to purchase 2,462,536 shares of common stock under the Temasek Funding Warrant were unexercised as of December 31, 2016.

 

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On October 20, 2015, we issued an aggregate of $57.6 million of our 9.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (“2015 144A Notes”) with an initial conversion rate of 443.6557 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2015 144A Notes (representing an initial effective conversion price of approximately $2.25 per share of common stock), subject to certain adjustments, for aggregate cash proceeds of approximately $54.4 million, after payment of offering expenses and placement agent fees. The 2015 144A Notes are convertible into shares of the Company's common stock at any time prior to the close of business on April 15, 2019. For any conversion on or after November 27, 2015, the holders, in addition to the shares deliverable upon conversion, will be entitled to receive a payment equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 2015 144A Notes being converted from the conversion date (or, in the case of conversion between a record date and the following interest payment date, from such interest payment date) to the earlier of the date that is three years after the date the Company receives such notice of conversion and maturity (April 15, 2019), which will be computed using a discount rate of 0.75%. The Company may pay an Early Conversion Payment either in cash or in common stock, at its election. In addition, holders of the 2015 144A Notes who convert their 2015 144A Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change will, under certain circumstances, be entitled to an increase in the conversion rate. Following our issuance of warrants to purchase common stock in a private placement transaction in February 2016 and our issuance of convertible notes in May, September and October 2016, as described below, the conversion rate of the 2015 144A Notes was adjusted to 446.8707 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2015 144A Notes. On January 11, 2017, we exchanged $15.3 million of our outstanding 3% Senior Unsecured Convertible Notes due 2017, originally issued in February 2012, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, for approximately $19.1 million in aggregate principal amount of additional 2015 144A Notes.

 

On February 12, 2016 and February 15, 2016, we issued an aggregate of $20.0 million of unsecured promissory notes and warrants for the purchase, at an exercise price of $0.01 per share, of an aggregate of 2,857,142 shares of our common stock, for aggregate cash proceeds of $20.0 million.

 

On March 21, 2016, we sold to Total one half of our ownership stake in our fuels joint venture with Total, Total Amyris BioSolutions B.V. (“TAB”) (giving Total an aggregate ownership stake of 75% of TAB and giving us an aggregate ownership stake of 25% of TAB) in exchange for Total cancelling (i) approximately $1.3 million of R&D Notes held by Total, plus all paid-in-kind and accrued interest under all outstanding R&D Notes (including all such interest that was outstanding as of July 29, 2015) and (ii) a note in the principal amount of Euro 50,000, plus accrued interest, issued by the Company to Total in connection with the original TAB capitalization. To satisfy its purchase obligation above, Total surrendered the remaining Secured R&D Note of approximately $5 million in principal amount, and we executed and delivered to Total a new Unsecured R&D Note (the “March 2016 R&D Note”) in the principal amount of $3.7 million. Other than it is unsecured and its payment terms are severed from TAB’s business performance, the March 2016 R&D Note contains substantially similar terms and conditions to the previous Secured R&D Notes. The March 2016 R&D Note upon issuance had a March 1, 2017 maturity date and an initial conversion price equal to $3.08 per share, which is subject to adjustment for proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock and under anti-dilution provisions in case of certain dividends and distributions. On February 27, 2017, we entered into an amendment of the March 2016 R&D Note with Total to extend the maturity of the March 2016 R&D Note to May 15, 2017.

 

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A placement agent was used in connection with the sale of the Tranche II Notes to one of the purchasers in such financing and in connection with the sale of the 2015 144A Notes in October 2015. In connection with the sale of the 2014 144A Notes, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC served as the initial purchaser. An exchange agent was used in connection with the issuance of the additional 2015 144A Notes in January 2017. In the other sales of securities described above, no underwriters were involved. Such securities were issued in private transactions pursuant to Section 4(2) of the Securities Act and Regulation D promulgated under Section 3(b) of the Securities Act. The recipients of these securities acquired the securities for investment purposes only and without intent to resell, were able to fend for themselves in these transactions, and were accredited investors as defined in Rule 501 of Regulation D promulgated under Section 3(b) of the Securities Act, and appropriate restrictions were set out in the agreements for, and stock certificates, notes and warrants issued in, these transactions. These security holders had adequate access, through their relationships with us, to information about us.

 

We may undertake further equity or debt offerings in the future in order to grow our business or fund operations. To the extent we issue further common stock, convertible promissory notes or other equity instruments, such issuances may cause further dilution to our existing stockholders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 are derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements appearing elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 are derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements not included in this annual report on Form 10-K. The historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of financial results to be achieved in future periods. You should read the following selected financial data in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K.

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014   2013   2012
                     
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:                                        
Total revenues   $ 67,192     $ 34,153     $ 43,274     $ 41,119     $ 73,694  
Total cost and operating expenses   $ 163,116     $ 182,686     $ 143,102     $ 160,735     $ 275,516  
Net loss from operations   $ (95,924 )   $ (148,533 )   $ (99,828 )   $ (119,616 )   $ (201,822 )
Net income (loss) before income taxes and loss from investment in affiliate   $ (96,781 )   $ (213,400 )   $ 5,572     $ (235,754 )   $ (205,052 )
Net income (loss) before loss from investment in affiliate   $ (97,334 )   $ (213,868 )   $ 5,077     $ (234,907 )   $ (206,033 )
Net income (loss)   $ (97,334 )   $ (218,052 )   $ 2,167     $ (234,907 )   $ (206,033 )
Net income (loss) attributable to Amyris, Inc. common stockholders   $ (97,334 )   $ (217,952 )   $ 2,286     $ (235,111 )   $ (205,139 )
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:                                        
Basic   $ (0.41 )   $ (1.75 )   $ 0.03     $ (3.12 )   $ (3.62 )
Diluted   $ (0.44 )   $ (1.75 )   $ (0.90 )   $ (3.12 )   $ (3.62 )
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding used in computing net income/loss per share of common stock:                                        
Basic     238,440,197       126,961,576       78,400,098       75,472,770       56,717,869  
Diluted     264,644,449       126,961,576       121,859,441       75,472,770       56,717,869  

 

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    As of December 31,
    2016   2015   2014   2013   2012
     
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:                                        
Cash, cash equivalents, investments and restricted cash   $ 33,807     $ 14,685     $ 45,041     $ 9,944     $ 31,644  
Working capital (deficit) (2)   $ (50,745 )   $ (41,147 )   $ 33,606     $ (382 )   $ 3,668  
Property, plant and equipment, net   $ 53,735     $ 59,797     $ 118,980     $ 140,591     $ 163,121  
Total assets   $ 129,873     $ 110,198     $ 216,183     $ 198,864     $ 242,834  
Derivative liabilities   $ 6,894     $ 51,439     $ 59,736     $ 134,717     $ 9,261  
Total indebtedness (1)(3)   $ 228,299     $ 156,755     $ 233,277     $ 153,305     $ 106,774  
Total equity (deficit)   $ (183,508 )   $ (158,456 )   $ (125,063 )   $ (135,848 )   $ 66,229  

 

(1) Total indebtedness as of December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012 includes $1.3 million, $0.7 million, $0.8 million, $1.2 million, and $2.6 million, respectively, in capital lease obligations, zero , zero, zero, zero, and $1.6 million, respectively, in notes payable, $43.8 million, $14.0 million, $21.1 million, $25.3 million and $26.2 million, respectively, in loans payable, and $49.1 million, $34.4 million, $35.7 million, $8.8 million, and $12.4 million, respectively, in credit facilities. Total indebtedness as of December 31, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 also included $79.0 million, $64.6 million and $60.4 million and $28.5 million, respectively, in convertible notes and $42.8 million, $43.0 million and $115.2 million and $89.5 million, respectively, in related party convertible notes.

 

(2) Including cash and cash equivalents, investments and restricted cash.

 

(3) We adopted ASU 2015-03 Interest - Imputation of Interest: Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, in 2016 and applied the guidance to the December 31, 2016 and 2015 Consolidated Balance Sheets Data, thereby classifying debt issuance costs as a direct reduction of the carrying amount of debt. For the years ending December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, we did not reclassify debt issuance costs as such amounts were not material.

 

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Overview

 

Amyris is a renewable products company focused on providing sustainable alternatives to a broad range of products. We have developed innovative microbial engineering and screening technologies that modify the way microorganisms process sugars. We are using our proprietary industrial bioscience technology to design microbes, primarily yeast, and use them as catalysts in established fermentation processes to convert plant-sourced sugars into renewable ingredients. We are developing, and, in some cases, already commercializing, products from these ingredients in the Health and Nutrition, Personal Care and Performance Materials markets. We call these No Compromise products because we design them to perform comparably to or better than currently available products.

 

We have been applying our industrial bioscience technology platform to provide alternatives to a broad range of petroleum-sourced and other traditional products. We have focused our initial development efforts on the production of Biofene, our brand of renewable farnesene, a long-chain, branched liquid hydrocarbon molecule. Using Biofene as a first commercial building block molecule, we are developing a wide range of renewable products for our target markets. In 2014, we began manufacturing additional molecules for the flavors and fragrance (F&F) industry, in 2015 we began investing to expand our capabilities to other small molecule chemical classes beyond terpenes via our collaboration with the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), as discussed below, and in 2016 we expanded into proteins.

 

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While our platform is able to utilize a wide variety of feedstocks, we are focusing our large-scale production plans primarily on the use of Brazilian sugarcane as our feedstock because of its renewability, low cost and relative price stability. We have also been able to produce our ingredients through the use of other feedstocks such as sugar beets, corn dextrose, sweet sorghum and cellulosic sugars.

 

Our first purpose-built, large-scale production plant commenced operations in southeastern Brazil in December 2012. This plant is located in Brotas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and is adjacent to an existing sugar and ethanol mill. In February 2017, we broke ground on a second purpose-built, large-scale production facility adjacent to our current Brotas facility.

 

Our business strategy is to generally focus our direct commercialization efforts on specialty products while moving commodity products, including our fuels and base oil lubricants products, into joint venture arrangements with established industry leaders. We believe this approach will permit access to the capital and resources necessary to support large-scale production and global distribution for our products. Our initial renewable products efforts have been focused on the Health and Nutrition, Personal Care and Performance Materials markets, including pharmaceutical products, nutraceuticals, food ingredients, F&F ingredients, skin care ingredients, cosmetic actives, polymers, lubricants, solvents and transportation fuels.

 

Sales and Revenues

 

Our revenues are comprised of product revenues and grants and collaborations (including license fees for intellectual property and value share) revenues. Our business model has been a key enabler for short and long-term revenue growth. The three components of our business model are: first, collaborations. Our partners fund the development of key ingredients to support their business strategy which allows us to maintain strong performance levels in our collaboration revenue. The second component, we produce and sell the products we develop to our partners. The third component, we have a value share mechanism where our partners share a portion of the value created from our products. We have entered into research and development collaboration arrangements pursuant to which we receive payments from our collaborators, which include Total, Manufacture Francaise de Pnematiques Michelin, DARPA, DOE, Firmenich, Givaudan and Cosan. Some of such collaboration arrangements include advance payments in consideration for grants of exclusivity or research efforts to be performed by us. Once a collaboration agreement has been signed, receipt of payments may depend on our achievement of milestones. See Note 8, “Significant Agreements” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more details regarding certain of these agreements and arrangements.

 

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Financing

 

In 2016 and 2015, we completed multiple financings involving loans, convertible debt, non-convertible debt, mezzanine equity and equity offerings.

 

In January 2015, we closed a second installment of the $21.7 million in convertible notes from Total under the Total Fuel Agreements, as described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in the amount of $10.85 million.

 

In July 2015, we sold to certain purchasers 16,025,642 shares of our common stock at a price per share of $1.56, for aggregate proceeds to us of $25 million. We also granted to the purchasers warrants exercisable at an exercise price of $0.01 per share for the purchase of an aggregate of 1,602,562 shares of our common stock. The exercisability of these warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on September 17, 2015. As of December 31, 2016, 160,255 of such warrants had been exercised.

 

In October 2015, we issued $57.6 million aggregate principal amount of 9.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 to certain qualified institutional buyers, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In February 2016, we issued to certain purchasers an aggregate of $20.0 million of unsecured promissory notes and warrants for the purchase, at an exercise price of $0.01 per share, of an aggregate of 2,857,142 shares of our common stock, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The exercisability of these warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on May 17, 2016. As of December 31, 2016, all of such warrants remained outstanding and unexercised.

 

In March 2016, we sold to Total one half of our ownership stake in TAB in exchange for Total cancelling $1.3 million of R&D Notes and certain other indebtedness, as described in more detail under “Relationship with Total” above and in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In May 2016, we sold and issued 4,385,964 shares of common stock to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation at a purchase price per share of $1.14, as described in more detail in Note 8, “Significant Agreements” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In May, September, October and December 2016, we sold and issued $25.0 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible promissory notes to a private investor, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In June and October 2016, we sold and issued $19.5 million in aggregate principal amount of secured promissory notes to Foris Ventures, LLC, an entity affiliated with director John Doerr of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, a current stockholder, and Ginkgo, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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In October 2016, we entered into a credit agreement with Guanfu Holding Co., Ltd. to make available to Amyris an unsecured credit facility with an aggregate principal amount of up to $25.0 million, which amount was fully drawn on December 31, 2016, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In December 2016, we sold and issued a purchase money promissory note in the principal amount of $3.5 million to Salisbury Partners, LLC in connection with our purchase of a production facility in Leland, North Carolina, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, "Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In December 2016, we sold and issued a promissory note in the principal amount of $3.9 million to Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd. in connection with the formation of our Neossance joint venture, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

See Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for details regarding financing transactions completed subsequent to December 31, 2016.

 

Exchange (Debt Conversion)

 

On July 29, 2015, we closed the "Exchange" pursuant to that certain Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 26, 2015 (or the “Exchange Agreement”), among us, Maxwell (Mauritius) Pte Ltd ( “Temasek”) and Total.

 

Under the Exchange Agreement, at the closing of the Exchange, Temasek exchanged approximately $71.0 million in principal of outstanding convertible promissory notes (including paid-in-kind and accrued interest through July 29, 2015) and Total exchanged $70.0 million in principal amount of outstanding convertible promissory notes for shares of the Company’s common stock. The exchange price was $2.30 per share (or the “Exchange Price”) and was paid by the exchange and cancellation of such outstanding convertible promissory notes, and Temasek and Total received 30,860,633 and 30,434,782 shares of the Company’s common stock, respectively, in the Exchange.

 

Under the Exchange Agreement, Total also received the following warrants, each with a five-year term, at the closing of the Exchange:

 

     A warrant to purchase 18,924,191 shares of our Common Stock (or the “Total Funding Warrant”).

 

     A warrant to purchase 2,000,000 shares of our common stock that would only be exercisable if we failed, as of March 1, 2017, to achieve a target cost per liter to manufacture farnesene (or the “Total R&D Warrant”). The Total Funding Warrant and the Total R&D Warrant are collectively referred to as the “Total Warrants.”

 

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Additionally, under the Exchange Agreement, Temasek received the following warrants at the closing of the Exchange:

 

     A warrant to purchase 14,677,861 shares of our common stock (or the “Temasek Exchange Warrant”).

 

     A warrant exercisable for that number of shares of our common stock equal to (1) (A) the number of shares for which Total exercises the Total Funding Warrant plus (B) the number of additional shares for which the certain convertible notes remaining outstanding following the completion of the Exchange may become exercisable as a result of a reduction in the conversion price of such remaining notes as a result of and/or subsequent to the date of the Exchange plus (C) that number of additional shares in excess of 2,000,000, if any, for which the Total R&D Warrant becomes exercisable multiplied by a fraction equal to 30.6% divided by 69.4% plus (2) (A) the number of any additional shares for which certain other outstanding convertible promissory notes may become exercisable as a result of a reduction to the conversion price of such notes multiplied by (B) a fraction equal to 13.3% divided by 86.7% (or the “Temasek Funding Warrant”).

 

     A warrant exercisable for that number of shares of our common stock equal to 880,339 multiplied by a fraction equal to the number of shares for which Total exercises the Total R&D Warrant divided by 2,000,000 (or the “Temasek R&D Warrant”). If Total is entitled to, and does, exercise the Total R&D Warrant in full, the Temasek R&D Warrant would be exercisable for 880,339 shares.

 

The Temasek Exchange Warrant, the Temasek Funding Warrant and the Temasek R&D Warrant each have ten-year terms and are referred to herein as the “Temasek Warrants” and, the Temasek Warrants and Total Warrants are hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Exchange Warrants”. All of the Exchange Warrants have an exercise price of $0.01 per share.

 

In addition to the grant of the Exchange Warrants, a warrant issued by the Company to Temasek in October 2013 in conjunction with a prior convertible debt financing (or the “2013 Warrant”) became exercisable in full upon the completion of the Exchange. There were 1,000,000 shares underlying the 2013 Warrant, which was exercised in full at the exercise price of $0.01 per share.

 

The exercisability of all of the Exchange Warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on September 17, 2015.

 

In February and May 2016, as a result of adjustments to the conversion price of our senior convertible notes issued in October 2013 (or the “Tranche I Notes”) and January 2014 (or the “Tranche II Notes”) discussed in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Temasek Funding Warrant became exercisable for an additional 127,194 and 2,335,342 shares of common stock, respectively.

 

As of December 31, 2016, the Total Funding Warrant, the Temasek Exchange Warrant and the 2013 Warrant had been fully exercised, and Temasek had exercised the Temasek Funding Warrant with respect to 12,700,244 shares of our common stock. Neither the Total R&D Warrant nor the Temasek R&D Warrant were exercisable as of December 31, 2016. See Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details regarding the Total R&D Warrant and Temasek R&D Warrant. Warrants to purchase 2,462,536 shares of common stock under the Temasek Funding Warrant were unexercised as of December 31, 2016.

 

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Maturity Treatment Agreement

 

At the closing of the Exchange, we, Total and Temasek also entered into a Maturity Treatment Agreement, dated as of July 29, 2015, pursuant to which Total and Temasek agreed to convert any Tranche I Notes, Tranche II Notes or 2014 144A Notes held by them that were not cancelled in the Exchange (or the “Remaining Notes”) into shares of our common stock in accordance with the terms of such Remaining Notes upon maturity, provided that certain events of default had not occurred with respect to the applicable Remaining Notes prior to such maturity. As of immediately following the closing of the Exchange and December 31, 2016, Temasek held $10.0 million in aggregate principal amount of Remaining Notes and Total held approximately $27.0 million and $29.5 million, respectively, in aggregate principal amount of Remaining Notes.

 

Liquidity

 

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and we believe that we will continue to incur losses and may have negative cash flow from operations through at least 2017. As of December 31, 2016, we had negative working capital of $50.7, an accumulated deficit of $1,134.4 million and had cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $28.5 million. We have significant outstanding debt, working capital deficit and contractual obligations related to capital and operating leases, as well as purchase commitments. We will likely need additional financing as early as the second quarter of 2017 to support our liquidity needs. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the basis that the Company will continue as a going concern. If we are unable to raise additional financing, our ability to continue as a going concern would be jeopardized and we may be unable to meet our obligations under our existing debt facilities, which could result in an acceleration of our obligations to repay all amounts outstanding under those facilities, and may be forced to liquidate our assets or we may be forced to delay, scale back or eliminate some of our activities to provide sufficient funds to continue our operations. In such a liquidation scenario, the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statement. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. Refer to "Liquidity and Capital Resources" for further details.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. The results of our analysis form the basis for making assumptions about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

 

We believe the following critical accounting policies involve significant areas of management’s judgments and estimates in the preparation of our financial statements.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We recognize revenue from the sale of renewable products, from the delivery of collaborative research and development services, from licensing intellectual property, government grants and from value share. Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the fee is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.

 

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If sales arrangements contain multiple elements, we evaluate whether the components of each arrangement represent separate units of accounting. Application of revenue recognition standards requires subjective determination and requires management to make judgments about the fair values of each individual element and whether it is separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship.

 

For each source of revenues, we apply the above revenue recognition criteria in the following manner:

 

Product Sales

 

Starting in the second quarter of 2011, we commenced sales of farnesene-derived products, and in the latter part of 2013 we initiated sales of flavors and fragrances and other products. Revenues are recognized, net of discounts and allowances, once passage of title and risk of loss have occurred, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have also been met.

 

Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are recorded as revenues. Shipping costs are included in cost of products sold. Such charges were not significant in any of the periods presented.

 

Grants, Collaborative Research Services and License Fees

 

Revenues from collaborative research services are recognized as the services are performed consistent with the performance requirements of the contract. In cases where the planned levels of research services fluctuate over the research term, we recognize revenues using the proportionate performance method based upon actual efforts to date relative to the amount of expected effort to be incurred by us. When up-front payments are received and the planned levels of research services do not fluctuate over the research term, revenues are recorded on a ratable basis over the arrangement term, up to the amount of cash received. When up-front payments are received and the planned levels of research services fluctuate over the research term, revenues are recorded using the proportionate performance method, up to the amount of cash received. Where arrangements include milestones that are determined to be substantive and at risk at the inception of the arrangement, revenues are recognized upon achievement of the milestone and is limited to those amounts whereby collectability is reasonably assured. License fees for intellectual property transferred to other parties, representing non-refundable payments received at the time of signature of license agreements, are recognized as revenue upon signature of the license agreements when the Company has no significant future performance obligations and collectability of the fees is assured. Upfront payments received at the beginning of licensing agreements are deferred and recognized as revenue on a systematic basis over the period during which the related services are rendered and all obligations are performed.

 

Government grants are made pursuant to agreements that generally provide cost reimbursement for certain types of expenditures in return for research and development activities over a contractually defined period. Revenues from government grants are recognized in the period during which the related costs are incurred, provided that the conditions under which the government grants were provided have been met and only perfunctory obligations are outstanding.

 

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Variable Interest Entities

 

We have interests in certain joint venture entities that are variable interest entities or VIEs. Determining whether to consolidate a variable interest entity may require judgment in assessing (i) whether an entity is a variable interest entity and (ii) if we are the entity’s primary beneficiary and thus required to consolidate the entity. To determine if we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE, we evaluate whether we have (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Our evaluation includes identification of significant activities and an assessment of our ability to direct those activities based on governance provisions and arrangements to provide or receive product and process technology, product supply, operations services, equity funding and financing and other applicable agreements and circumstances. Our assessment of whether we are the primary beneficiary of our VIEs requires significant assumptions and judgment.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

We assess impairment of long-lived assets, which include property, plant and equipment, and test long-lived assets for recoverability when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Circumstances which could trigger a review include, but are not limited to, significant decreases in the market price of the asset; significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors; accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the asset; current period cash flow or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the asset; or expectations that the asset will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of its estimated useful life.

 

Recoverability is assessed based on the fair value of the asset, which is calculated as the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposal of the asset. An impairment loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations when the carrying amount is determined not to be recoverable and exceeds fair value, which is determined on a discounted cash flow basis.

 

We make estimates and judgments about future undiscounted cash flows and fair values. Although our cash flow forecasts are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans, there is significant exercise of judgment involved in determining the cash flows attributable to a long-lived asset over its estimated remaining useful life. Although we believe that the assumptions and estimates that we have are reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions and estimates could materially impact our reported financial results.

 

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Inventories

 

Inventories, which consist of farnesene-derived products and flavor and fragrances ingredients are stated at the lower of cost or market and categorized as finished goods, work-in-process or raw material inventories. We evaluate the recoverability of our inventories based on assumptions about expected demand and net realizable value. If we determine that the cost of inventories exceeds its estimated net realizable value, we record a write-down equal to the difference between the cost of inventories and the estimated net realizable value. If actual net realizable values are less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required that could negatively impact our operating results. If actual net realizable values are more favorable than those projected by management, we may have favorable operating results when products that have been previously written down are sold in the normal course of business. We also evaluate the terms of our agreements with our suppliers and establish accruals for estimated losses on adverse purchase commitments as necessary, applying the same lower of cost or market approach that is used to value inventory. Cost is computed on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventory costs are incurred in bringing inventory to its existing location.

 

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

 

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost over the fair value of net assets acquired from our business combinations. Intangible assets are comprised primarily of in-process research and development (IPR&D). We make significant judgments in relation to the valuation of goodwill and intangible assets resulting from business combinations and asset acquisitions. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are assessed for impairment using fair value measurement techniques on an annual basis or more frequently if facts and circumstance warrant such a review. When required, a comparison of fair value to the carrying amount of assets is performed to determine the amount of any impairment.

 

There are several methods that can be used to determine the estimated fair value of the IPR&D acquired in a business combination. We have used the "income method," which applies a probability weighting that considers the risk of development and commercialization, to the estimated future net cash flows that are derived from projected sales revenues and estimated costs. These projections are based on factors such as relevant market size, pricing of similar products, and expected industry trends. The estimated future net cash flows are then discounted to the present value using an appropriate discount rate. These assets are treated as indefinite-lived intangible assets until completion or abandonment of the projects, at which time the assets will be amortized over the remaining useful life or written off, as appropriate.

 

Factors that could trigger an impairment review include significant under-performance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or the strategy for our overall business or significant negative industry or economic trends. If this evaluation indicates that the value of the intangible asset may be impaired, we make an assessment of the recoverability of the net carrying value of the asset over its remaining useful life. If this assessment indicates that the intangible asset is not recoverable, based on the estimated discounted future cash flows of the technology over the estimated useful life of the technology, we will reduce the net carrying value of the related intangible asset to fair value and may adjust the remaining amortization period. Any such impairment charge could be significant and could have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results. As of December 31, 2016, the Company's intangible assets had a carrying amount of zero.

 

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Stock-Based Compensation

 

Stock-based compensation cost for restricted stock units (RSUs) is measured based on the closing fair market value of our common stock on the date of grant. Stock-based compensation cost for stock options and employee stock purchase plan rights is estimated at the grant date and offering date, respectively, based on the fair-value of our common stock using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We amortize the fair value of the employee stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally the vesting period. The measurement of nonemployee stock-based compensation is subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vest, and the resulting change in value, if any, is recognized in our consolidated statements of operations during the period the related services are rendered. There is inherent uncertainty in these estimates and if different assumptions had been used, the fair value of the equity instruments issued to nonemployee consultants could have been significantly different.

 

In future periods, our stock-based compensation expense is expected to change as a result of our existing unrecognized stock-based compensation still to be recognized and as we issue additional stock-based awards in order to attract and retain employees and nonemployee consultants.

 

See Note 11, "Stock-Based Compensation Plans" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in Part II, Item 8 of this Report for a description of our stock-based compensation plans and more information on the assumptions used to calculate the fair value of stock-based compensation.

 

Income Taxes

 

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, and we use estimates in determining our provisions for income taxes. We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes, whereby deferred tax assets or liability account balances are calculated at the balance sheet date using current tax laws and rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income.

 

Recognition of deferred tax assets is appropriate when realization of such assets is more likely than not. We recognize a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets unless it is more likely than not that they will be realized. This assessment requires judgment as to the likelihood and amounts of future taxable income by tax jurisdiction.

 

We apply the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes. We assess all material positions taken in any income tax return, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position’s sustainability and the tax benefit to be recognized is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and we will determine whether (i) the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and (ii) the amount of the recognized tax benefit is still appropriate. The recognition and measurement of tax benefits requires significant judgment. Judgments concerning the recognition and measurement of a tax benefit might change as new information becomes available.

 

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Embedded Derivatives Related to Convertible Notes

 

Embedded derivatives that are required to be bifurcated from the underlying debt instrument (i.e. host) are accounted for and valued as a separate financial instrument. We evaluated the terms and features of our convertible notes payable and identified compound embedded derivatives (conversion options that contain “make-whole interest” provisions or down round conversion price adjustment provisions) requiring bifurcation and accounting at fair value because the economic and contractual characteristics of the embedded derivatives met the criteria for bifurcation and separate accounting due to the conversion option containing a “make-whole interest” provision and down round conversion, that requires cash payment for forgone interest upon a change of control and down round conversion price adjustment provisions.

 

See Note 3, "Fair Value of Financial Instruments" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in Part II, Item 8 of this Report for a description of our embedded derivatives related to convertible notes and information on the valuation models used to calculate the fair value of embedded derivatives. Changes in the inputs into these valuation models may have a significant impact on the estimated fair value of the embedded derivatives. For example, a decrease (increase) in the estimated credit spread for the Company results in an increase (decrease) in the estimated value of the embedded derivatives. Conversely, a decrease (increase) in the stock price results in a decrease (increase) in the estimated fair value of the embedded derivatives. The changes in the fair value of the bifurcated compound embedded derivatives are primarily related to the change in price of the underlying common stock of the Company and is reflected in our consolidated statements of operations as “Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative instruments.”

 

Results of Operations

 

Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2016 to Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

Revenues

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year to Year   Percentage
    2016   2015   Change   Change
    (Dollars in thousands)    
Revenues                                
Renewable product sales   $ 24,788     $ 14,032     $ 10,756       77 %
Related party renewable product sales     1,561       864       697       81 %
Total product sales     26,349       14,896       11,453       77 %
Grants and collaborations revenue     25,843       19,257       6,586       34 %
License fees     15,000             15,000       nm  
Total grants, collaborations and license fee revenue     40,843       19,257       21,586       112 %
Total revenues   $ 67,192     $ 34,153     $ 33,039       97 %

  ______________

nm= not meaningful

 

Our total revenues increased by $33.0 million to $67.2 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to significant growth in product sales and grants, collaborations and license fee revenues.

 

  82  
 

Product sales increased by $11.5 million to $26.3 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year primarily due to increases in the personal care and health and nutrition segments.

 

Grants, collaborations and license fee revenue increased by $21.6 million to $40.8 million in 2016 compared to the prior year. This increase was due to new contracts with DARPA and Givaudan and license fee revenues resulting from the transfer of intellectual property to Ginkgo Bioworks for $15 million.

 

Cost and Operating Expenses

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year-to
Year
  Percentage
    2016   2015   Change   Change
Costs and Operating Expenses   (Dollars in thousands)
Cost of products sold   $ 56,678     $ 37,374     $ 19,304       52 %
Loss on purchase commitments, impairment of property, plant and equipment and other asset allowances     7,305       34,166       (26,861 )     (79 )%
Withholding tax related to conversion of related party notes           4,723       (4,723 )     (100 )%
Impairment of intangible assets           5,525       (5,525 )     (100 )%
Research and development     51,412       44,636       6,776       15 %
Sales, general and administrative     47,721       56,262       (8,541 )     (15 )%
Total cost and operating expenses   $ 163,116     $ 182,686     $ (19,570 )     (11 )%

 

Cost of Products Sold

 

Our cost of products sold includes the cost of raw materials, labor and overhead, amounts paid to contract manufacturers, period costs related to inventory write-downs resulting from applying lower of cost or market inventory valuations, and costs related to scale-up in production of such products. Our cost of products sold increased by $19.3 million to $56.7 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year, primarily driven by product mix, higher volumes of products sold and production scale-up costs.

 

Loss on Purchase Commitments and Impairment of Property, Plant and Equipment and Other Asset Allowances

 

The loss on purchase commitments and impairment of property, plant and equipment and other asset allowances decreased by $26.9 million to $7.3 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year. This decline was primarily as a result of lower asset impairment charges.

 

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Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development expenses increased by $6.8 million to $51.4 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year, primarily as a result of increases of $3.8 million in consulting and outside services, $1.5 million in salaries and benefits expense, $1.7 million in facilities costs and $0.1 million in lab supplies and equipment, offset by a decrease of $0.3 million in stock-based compensation expense.

 

Sales, General and Administrative Expenses

 

Our sales, general and administrative expenses decreased by $8.5 million to $47.7 million in 2016 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to decreases of $3.2 million in consulting and outside services expenses, $2.2 million in salaries and benefits, $1.7 million in facilities expenses and $1.4 million in stock-based compensation expense.

 

Other Income (Expense)

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year-to
Year
  Percentage
    2016   2015   Change   Change
    (Dollars in thousands)
Other income (expense):                                
Interest income   $ 258     $ 264     $ (6 )     (2 )%
Interest expense     (37,629 )     (78,854 )     41,225       (52 )%
Gain from change in fair value of derivative instruments     41,355       16,287       25,068       154 %
Loss from extinguishment of debt     (4,146 )     (1,141 )     (3,005 )     263 %
Other income (expense), net     (695 )     (1,423 )     728       (51 )%
Total other income (expense)   $ (857 )   $ (64,867 )   $ 64,010       (99 )%

 

Total other expense was $0.9 million in 2016, compared to $64.9 million in 2015. The decrease in net expense of $64.0 million was primarily attributable to the decreases of $41.2 million in interest expense associated with our acceleration of accretion of debt discount related to debt extinguishments and conversions in 2015 and of $0.7 million in other expense, the increase in gain from change in fair value of derivative instruments of $25.1 million, attributed to the compound embedded derivative liabilities associated with certain of our convertible promissory notes, and the change in fair value of our interest rate swap derivative liability, which was partially offset by the increase in loss from extinguishment of debt of $3.0 million.

 

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Comparison of Year Ended December 31, 2015 to Year Ended December 31, 2014

 

Revenues

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year-to
Year
  Percentage
    2015   2014   Change   Change
    (Dollars in thousands)
Revenues                
Renewable product sales   $ 14,032     $ 22,793     $ (8,761 )     (38 )%
Related party renewable product sales     864       646       218       34 %
Total product sales     14,896       23,439       (8,543 )     (36 )%
Grants and collaborations revenue     19,257       19,835       (578 )     (3 )%
Total grants and collaborations revenue     19,257       19,835       (578 )     (3 )%
Total revenues   $ 34,153     $ 43,274     $ (9,121 )     (21 )%

 

Our total revenues decreased by $9.1 million to $34.2 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to lower product sales, the achievement of collaboration milestones in 2013 and 2014, which did not continue in 2015, and the recognizing of revenue in 2014 related to previous collaboration payments. This decrease was partly offset by the completion of several government grant contracts.

 

Product sales decreased by $8.5 million to $14.9 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year primarily due to the initial large shipment in 2014 of product to a collaboration partner, while our initial large shipment of a product to a collaboration partner expected for Q4 2015 was delayed.

 

Grants and collaborations revenue decreased by $0.6 million to $19.3 million in 2015 compared to the prior year. This was due to a $2.9 million decrease in government grants revenue offset by a $2.3 million increase in collaborations revenue. The decline in government grants by $2.9 million, includes a decrease of $2.0 million from the DARPA Technology Investment Agreement as a result of the project being completed during 2014. The decrease was reduced by the net increase in collaborations revenue of $2.4 million. The increase consists of new collaborations of $1.3 million and $1.1 million from collaborations that started later in 2014.

 

Cost and Operating Expenses

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year-to
Year
  Percentage
    2015   2014   Change   Change
    (Dollars in thousands)
Cost of products sold   $ 37,374     $ 33,202     $ 4,172       13 %
Loss on purchase commitments and write-off of property, plant and equipment     34,166       1,769       32,397       1,831 %
Withholding tax related to conversion of related party notes     4,723             4,723       nm  
Impairment of intangible assets     5,525       3,035       2,490       82 %
Research and development     44,636       49,661       (5,025 )     (10 )%
Sales, general and administrative     56,262       55,435       827       1 %
Total cost and operating expenses   $ 182,686     $ 143,102     $ 39,584       28 %

______________

nm= not meaningful

 

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Cost of Products Sold

 

Our cost of products sold includes cost of raw materials, labor and overhead, amounts paid to contract manufacturers, period costs related to inventory write-downs resulting from applying lower of cost or market inventory valuations, and costs related to scale-up in production of such products. Our cost of products sold increased by $4.2 million to $37.4 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year, primarily driven by an unfavorable product mix in 2015, with declining fuel average selling prices generating losses. This increase was partly offset by lower sales.

 

Loss on Purchase Commitments and Impairment of Property, Plant and Equipment and Other Asset Allowances

 

The loss on purchase commitments and impairment of property, plant and equipment and other asset allowances increased by $32.4 million to $34.2 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year. The increase was mainly due to an impairment charge associated with the termination of a production joint venture and indirect tax allowances. See Note 4 “Balance Sheet Components” to the financial statements for further details.

 

Impairment of Intangible Assets

 

The loss on impairment of intangible assets of $5.5 million was a result of the impairment of in-process research and development assets related to the 2011 acquisition of Draths Corporation (Draths).

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development expenses decreased by $5.0 million to $44.6 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year, primarily as a result of decreases of $1.2 million in stock-based compensation, $1.2 million in salaries and benefits expense, $0.7 million from our overall cost reduction efforts and lower spending to manage our operating costs, $0.7 million from other expenses, $0.6 million in facilities and rent costs, and $0.6 million in consulting and outside services. Research and development expenses included stock-based compensation expense of $2.3 million and $3.5 million during the years 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

Sales, General and Administrative Expenses

 

Our sales, general and administrative expenses increased by $0.8 million to $56.3 million in 2015 as compared to the prior year, primarily due to increases in consulting and outside services and personnel-related expenses from sales and marketing headcount to support the Company’s product commercialization plans, as well as a severance-related charge, offset in part by a decrease in stock-based compensation. Sales, general and administrative expenses included stock-based compensation expense of $6.8 million and $10.6 million during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

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Other Income (Expense)

 

    Years Ended December 31,   Year-to
Year
  Percentage
    2015   2014   Change   Change
    (Dollars in thousands)
Other income (expense):                                
Interest income   $ 264     $ 387     $ (123 )     (32 )%
Interest expense     (78,854 )     (28,949 )     (49,905 )     172 %
Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative instruments     16,287       144,138       (127,851 )     (89 )%
Loss from extinguishment of debt     (1,141 )     (10,512 )     9,371       (89 )%
Other income (expense), net     (1,423 )     336       (1,759 )     (524 )%
Total other income (expense)   $ (64,867 )   $ 105,400     $ (170,267 )     (162 )%

 

Total other income (expense) was $64.9 million net expense in 2015, compared to $105.4 million net income in 2014. The decrease in net income of $170.3 million was primarily attributable to the decrease in gain from change in fair value of derivative instruments of $127.9 million, attributed to the compound embedded derivative liabilities associated with our senior secured convertible promissory notes, the change in fair value of our interest rate swap derivative liability and the increases of $49.9 million in interest expense associated with our acceleration of accretion of debt discount related to debt extinguishments and conversions, which was offset by the decrease in losses from the extinguishment of debt of $9.4 million.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

    December 31,
    2016   2015
    (Dollars in thousands)
Working capital (deficit), excluding cash and cash equivalents   $ (77,895 )   $ (53,139 )
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments   $ 28,524     $ 13,512  
Debt and capital lease obligations   $ 228,299     $ 156,755  
Accumulated deficit   $ (1,134,438 )   $ (1,037,104 )

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014
    (Dollars in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities   $ (82,367 )   $ (85,132 )   $ (84,708 )
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities   $ 5,642     $ (5,144 )   $ (9,831 )
Net cash provided by financing activities   $ 92,199     $ 61,424     $ 130,921  

 

Working Capital. Our working capital deficit, excluding cash and cash equivalents was $77.9 million as of December 31, 2016, which represents an increase of $24.8 million compared to our working capital deficit of $53.1 million as of December 31, 2015. The increase of $24.8 million in working capital deficit for 2016 as compared to the prior year was due to increases of $4.9 million in accrued and other current liabilities, $7.4 million in accounts payable and $21.6 million in current portion of debt, partially offset by an increase of $9.1 million in accounts receivable.

 

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To support production of our products in contract manufacturing and dedicated production facilities, we have incurred, and we expect to continue to incur, capital expenditures as we invest in these facilities. We plan to continue to seek external debt and equity financing from U.S. and Brazilian sources to help fund our investment in these contract manufacturing and dedicated production facilities.

 

We expect to fund our operations for the foreseeable future with cash and investments currently on hand, cash inflows from collaboration and grant funding, cash contributions from product sales, and proceeds from new investor debt and equity financings as well as strategic asset divestments. Some of our anticipated financing sources, such as research and development collaborations, debt and equity financings and strategic asset divestments, are subject to the risk that we cannot meet milestones, are not yet subject to definitive agreements or mandatory funding commitments and, if needed, we may not be able to secure additional types of financing in a timely manner or on reasonable terms, if at all. Our planned 2017 working capital needs and our planned operating and capital expenditures for 2017 are dependent on significant inflows of cash from renewable product sales and existing collaboration partners, as well as additional funding from new collaborations, new debt and equity financings and proceeds from strategic asset divestments. We will continue to need to fund our research and development and related activities and to provide working capital to fund production, storage, distribution and other aspects of our business.

 

Liquidity . We have incurred significant losses since our inception and we believe that we will continue to incur losses and may have negative cash flow from operations through at least 2017. As of December 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $1,134.4 million and had cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $28.5 million. In March 2016, we entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement with third party Agents under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock through the Agents having an aggregate offering price of up to $50.0 million from time to time in “at the market” offerings under our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-203216). This agreement includes no commitment by other parties to purchase shares we offer for sale. See Note 8, “Significant Agreements” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details. As of the date hereof, $50.0 million remained available for future issuance under this facility. We have significant outstanding debt and contractual obligations related to capital and operating leases, as well as purchase commitments.

 

As of December 31, 2016, our debt, net of discount of $42.5 million, totaled $227.0 million, of which $59.2 million is classified as current. In addition to upcoming debt maturities, our debt service obligations over the next twelve months are significant, including $18.3 million of anticipated interest payments. Our debt agreements also contain various covenants, including restrictions on our business that could cause us to be at risk of defaults such as restrictions on additional indebtedness, material adverse effect and cross default clauses. A failure to comply with the covenants and other provisions of our debt instruments, including any failure to make a payment when required would generally result in events of default under such instruments, which could permit acceleration of such indebtedness. If such indebtedness is accelerated, it would generally also constitute an event of default under our other outstanding indebtedness, permitting acceleration of such other outstanding indebtedness. Any required repayment of our indebtedness as a result of acceleration or otherwise would lower our current cash on hand such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business or for payment of other outstanding indebtedness. Refer to Note 5, "Debt", Note 6, “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details of our debt arrangements.

 

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The Company has incurred significant operating losses since its inception and believes that it will continue to incur losses and negative cash flow from operations into at least 2018. As of December 31, 2016, the 76 Company had negative working capital of $40.7 million, an accumulated deficit of $1,124.4 million and had cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $28.5 million. The Company will likely need additional financing as early as the second quarter of 2017 to support its liquidity needs. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. In addition, if we are unable to continue as a going concern, we may be unable to meet our obligations under our existing debt facilities, which could result in an acceleration of our obligation to repay all amounts outstanding under those facilities, and we may be forced to liquidate our assets. In such a scenario, the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements.

 

Our operating plan for 2017 contemplates a significant reduction in our net cash outflows, resulting from (i) revenue growth from sales of existing and new products with positive gross margins, (ii) reduced production costs as a result of manufacturing and technical developments, (iii) cash inflows from collaborations, (iv) access to various financing commitments, and (v) strategic asset divestments (see Note 5, “Debt” and Note 8, “Significant Agreements” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for details of financing commitments).

 

If we are unable to generate sufficient cash contributions from product sales, payments from existing and new collaboration partners and strategic asset divestments and draw sufficient funds from financing commitments due to contractual restrictions and covenants, we will need to obtain additional funding from equity or debt financings, which could require us to agree to burdensome covenants or grant further security interests in our assets, enter into collaboration and licensing arrangements that require us to relinquish commercial rights, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable.

 

If we are unable to raise additional financing, or if other expected sources of funding are delayed or not received, our ability to continue as a going concern would be jeopardized and we would take the following actions as early as the second quarter of 2017 to support our liquidity needs through the remainder of 2017 and into 2018:

 

Effect significant headcount reductions, particularly with respect to employees not connected to critical or contracted activities across all functions of the Company, including employees involved in general and administrative, research and development, and production activities.

 

Shift focus to existing products and customers with significantly reduced investment in new product and commercial development efforts.

 

Reduce production activity at our Brotas manufacturing facility to levels only sufficient to satisfy volumes required for product revenues forecast from existing products and customers.

 

Reduce expenditures for third party contractors, including consultants, professional advisors and other vendors.

 

Reduce or delay uncommitted capital expenditures, including those relating to proposed additional manufacturing capacity, non-essential facility and lab equipment, and information technology projects.

 

Closely monitor our working capital position with customers and suppliers, as well as suspend operations at pilot plants and demonstration facilities.

 

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Implementing this plan could have a negative impact on our ability to continue our business as currently contemplated, including, without limitation, delays or failures in our ability to:

 

Achieve planned production levels;

 

Develop and commercialize products within planned timelines or at planned scales; and

 

Continue other core activities.

 

Furthermore, any inability to scale-back operations as necessary, and any unexpected liquidity needs, could create pressure to implement more severe measures. Such measures could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet contractual requirements, including obligations to maintain manufacturing operations, and increase the severity of the consequences described above.

 

Collaboration Funding. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we received $30.6 million in cash from collaborations, including $13.2 million under flavors and fragrances collaboration agreements and $15.0 million for licensing of intellectual property.

 

We depend on collaboration funding to support our research and development and operating expenses. While part of this funding is committed based on existing collaboration agreements, we will be required to identify and obtain funding from additional collaborations. In addition, some of our existing collaboration funding is subject to our achievement of milestones or other funding conditions.

 

If we cannot secure sufficient collaboration funding to support our operating expenses in excess of cash contributions from product sales, existing debt and equity financings and strategic asset divestments, we may need to issue preferred and/or discounted equity, agree to onerous covenants, grant further security interests in our assets, and enter into collaboration and licensing arrangements that require us to relinquish commercial rights or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we fail to secure such funding, we could be forced to curtail our operations, which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue with our business plans.

 

Government Contracts . In September 2015, we entered into a Technology Investment Agreement (as amended, the “TIA”) with The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (or “DARPA”) under which we, with the assistance of five specialized subcontractors, will work to create new research and development tools and technologies for strain engineering and scale-up activities. The program that is the subject of the TIA is being performed and funded on a milestone basis. Under the TIA, we and our subcontractors could collectively receive DARPA funding of up to $35.0 million over the program’s four year term if all of the program’s milestones are achieved. In conjunction with DARPA’s funding, we and our subcontractors are obligated to collectively contribute approximately $15.5 million toward the program over its four year term (primarily by providing specified labor and/or purchasing certain equipment). We can elect to retain title to the patentable inventions we produce in the program, but DARPA receives certain data rights as well as a government purposes license to certain of such inventions. Either party may, upon written notice and subject to certain consultation obligations, terminate the TIA upon a reasonable determination that the program will not produce beneficial results commensurate with the expenditure of resources. We recognized $9.7 million in revenue under this agreement for the year ended December 31, 2016. Total cash received under this agreement as of December 31, 2016 was $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.

 

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In October 2016, we entered into an assistance agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) relating to a research grant award (Award) under which we, with the assistance of two specialized subcontractors, Total and Renmatix, which are related parties of the Company, will work to develop a manufacturing-ready process utilizing wood as the cellulosic feedstock to produce farnesene. The program that is the subject of the Award is being performed and funded on a milestone basis. Under the Award, we and our subcontractors could collectively receive reimbursement for up to $8.8 million in costs expended by us and our subcontractors over the program’s three year term if all of the program’s milestones are achieved. We can elect to retain title to the patentable inventions we produce in the program, but DOE receives certain data rights as well as a government purposes license to certain of such inventions. Either party may, upon written notice and subject to certain consultation obligations, terminate the Award upon a reasonable determination that the program will not produce beneficial results commensurate with the expenditure of resources. We recognized zero in revenue under this agreement for the year ended December 31, 2016. Total cash received under this agreement as of December 31, 2016 was zero for the year ended December 31, 2016.

 

Convertible Note Offerings. In February 2012, we sold $25.0 million in aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured convertible promissory notes due March 1, 2017, $9.7 million of which notes were repurchased in October 2015 with a portion of the proceeds from our sale of the 2015 144A Notes (as defined below), and the remainder of which were subsequently exchanged for $19.1 million of additional 2015 144A Notes in January 2017, as described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" and Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In July and September 2012, we issued $53.3 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.5% Senior Unsecured Convertible Notes to Total under the Total Fuel Agreements for an aggregate of $30.0 million in cash proceeds and our repayment of $23.3 million in previously-provided research and development funds pursuant to the Total Fuel Agreements, as described in more detail under "Related Party Convertible Notes" in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As part of our December 2012 private placement, we issued 1,677,852 shares of our common stock to Total in exchange for the cancellation of $5.0 million of an outstanding senior unsecured convertible promissory note held by Total.

 

In June and July 2013, we sold and issued $30.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.5% Senior Unsecured Convertible Notes to Total with a March 1, 2017 maturity date pursuant to the Total Fuel Agreements.

 

In August 2013, we entered into an agreement with Total and Temasek to issue up to $73.0 million in convertible promissory notes in private placements over a period of up to 24 months from the date of signing as described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to audited Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (such agreement referred to as the “August 2013 SPA” and such financing referred to as the “August 2013 Financing”). The August 2013 Financing was divided into two tranches (one for $42.6 million and one for $30.4 million). Of the total possible purchase price in the financing, $25.0 million was to be paid in the form of cash by Temasek ($25.0 million in the second tranche), $35.0 million was to be paid by the exchange and cancellation of the Temasek Bridge Note, as described below, and $13.0 million was to be paid by the exchange and cancellation of outstanding convertible promissory notes held by Total in connection with its exercise of pro rata rights ($7.6 million in the first tranche and $5.4 million in the second tranche).

 

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On October 4, 2013, we issued a senior secured promissory note in the principal amount of $35.0 million (Temasek Bridge Note) to Temasek for cash proceeds of $35.0 million. The Temasek Bridge Note was due on February 2, 2014 and accrued interest at a rate of 5.5% per month from October 4, 2013. The Temasek Bridge Note was cancelled as payment for Temasek's purchase of a first tranche convertible note in the initial closing of the August 2013 Financing, as described below.

 

In October 2013, we amended the August 2013 SPA to include certain entities affiliated with FMR LLC (or the “Fidelity Entities”) in the first tranche closing (participating for a principal amount of $7.6 million), and to proportionally increase the amount acquired by exchange and cancellation of outstanding convertible promissory notes by Total to $14.6 million ($9.2 million in the first tranche and up to $5.4 million in the second tranche). Also in October 2013, we completed the closing of the issuance and sale of senior convertible notes under the first tranche of the August 2013 Financing (or the “Tranche I Notes”) for cash proceeds of $7.6 million and cancellation of outstanding convertible promissory notes of $44.2 million, of which $35.0 million resulted from the exchange and cancellation of the Temasek Bridge Note and the remaining $9.2 million from the exchange and cancellation of an outstanding convertible promissory notes held by Total. In December 2013, we further amended the August 2013 SPA to sell $3.0 million of senior convertible notes under the second tranche of the August 2013 Financing (or the “Tranche II Notes”) to funds affiliated with Wolverine Asset Management, LLC and we elected to call $25.0 million in additional funds from Temasek pursuant to its previous commitment to purchase such amount of Tranche II Notes. Additionally, pursuant to that amendment, we sold approximately $6.0 million of Tranche II Notes to Total through exchange and cancellation of the same amount of principal of previously outstanding convertible notes held by Total (in respect of Total’s preexisting contractual right to maintain its pro rata ownership position through such cancellation of indebtedness). The closing of the issuance and sale of such Tranche II Notes under the December amendment to the August 2013 SPA occurred in January 2014. The August 2013 Financing is more fully described in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In December 2013, in connection with our entry into agreements establishing our joint venture with Total, we exchanged the $69.0 million of then-outstanding unsecured convertible notes issued to Total pursuant to the Total Fuel Agreements for replacement 1.5% Senior Secured Convertible Notes, in principal amounts equal to the principal amounts of the cancelled notes.

 

In May 2014, we issued and sold $75.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (or the “2014 144A Notes”) to Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC as the Initial Purchaser in a private placement, and for initial resale by the Initial Purchaser to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A of the Securities Act (or the “2014 144A Offering”). The 2014 144A Offering is described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In October 2015, we repurchased $22.9 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2014 144A Notes with a portion of the proceeds from our sale of the 2015 144A Notes (as defined below), as described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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In July 2014 and January 2015, we issued and sold $21.7 million in aggregate principal amount of 1.5% Senior Secured Convertible Notes with a March 1, 2017 maturity date to Total pursuant to the Total Fuel Agreements.

 

In July 2015, Temasek exchanged approximately $71.0 million in principal amount of outstanding convertible promissory notes and Total exchanged $70.0 million in principal amount of outstanding convertible promissory notes for shares of our common stock, as further described above under “Exchange (debt conversion)”.

 

In October 2015, we issued and sold $57.6 million in aggregate principal amount of 9.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (2015 144A Notes), which were sold only to qualified institutional buyers and institutional accredited investors in a private placement (2015 144A Offering) under the Securities Act. The 2015 144A Offering is described in more detail in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In January 2017, we issued an additional $19.1 million in aggregate principal amount of 2015 144A Notes in exchange for the cancellation of $15.3 million in aggregate principal amount of outstanding senior unsecured convertible promissory notes issued in February 2012, as described in more detail in Note 16, "Subsequent Events" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In March 2016, we sold to Total one half of our ownership stake in TAB in exchange for Total cancelling $3.7 million in aggregate principal amount of outstanding 1.5% Senior Secured Convertible Notes and certain other indebtedness, as described in more detail under “Relationship with Total” above and in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In February 2017, we and Total agreed to extend the maturity of the remaining outstanding indebtedness under the Total Fuel Agreements from March 1, 2017 to May 15, 2017, as described in more detail in Note 16, "Subsequent Events" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In May, September, October and December 2016, we issued $25.0 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible promissory notes to a private investor in offerings registered under the Securities Act, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Export Financing with ABC Brasil. In March 2013, we entered into a one-year export financing agreement with Banco ABC Brasil S.A. (or “ABC Brasil”) for approximately $2.5 million to fund exports through March 2014. This loan was collateralized by future exports from our subsidiary in Brazil. As of December 31, 2016, the loan was fully paid.

 

In March 2014, we entered into an additional one-year-term export financing agreement with ABC Brasil for approximately $2.2 million to fund exports through March 2015. This loan is collateralized by future exports from our subsidiary in Brazil. As of December 31, 2016, the loan was fully paid.

 

In April 2015, we entered into an additional one-year-term export financing agreement with ABC Brasil for approximately $1.6 million to fund exports through April 2016. This loan is collateralized by future exports from our subsidiary in Brazil. As of December 31, 2016, the loan was fully paid.

 

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Banco Pine/Nossa Caixa Financing . In July 2012, we entered into a Note of Bank Credit and a Fiduciary Conveyance of Movable Goods agreement with each of Nossa Caixa and Banco Pine. Under these instruments, we borrowed an aggregate of R$52.0 million (approximately US$16.0 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016) as financing for capital expenditures relating to our manufacturing facility in Brotas, Brazil. Under the loan agreements, Banco Pine agreed to lend R$22.0 million and Nossa Caixa agreed to lend R$30.0 million. The loans have a final maturity date of July 15, 2022 and bear a fixed interest rate of 5.5% per year. The loans are also subject to early maturity and delinquency charges upon occurrence of certain events including interruption of manufacturing activities at our manufacturing facility in Brotas, Brazil for more than 30 days, except during sugarcane off-season. The loans are secured by certain of our farnesene production assets at the manufacturing facility in Brotas, Brazil and we were required to provide parent guarantees to each of the lenders. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, a principal amount of $11.1 million and $11.0 million, respectively, was outstanding under these loan agreements.

 

BNDES Credit Facility . In December 2011, we entered into a credit facility with Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (or BNDES), a government-owned bank headquartered in Brazil (BNDES Credit Facility) to finance a production site in Brazil. The BNDES Credit Facility was for R$22.4 million (approximately US$6.9 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016). The credit line was divided into an initial tranche of up to approximately R$19.1 million and an additional tranche of approximately R$3.3 million that would become available upon delivery of additional guarantees. The credit line was cancelled in 2013. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company had R$3.8 million (approximately US$1.2 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016) and R$7.6 million (approximately US$1.9 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2015), respectively, in outstanding advances under the BNDES Credit Facility.

 

The principal of loans under the BNDES Credit Facility is required to be repaid in 60 monthly installments, with the first installment due in January 2013 and the last due in December 2017. Interest was initially due on a quarterly basis with the first installment due in March 2012. From and after January 2013, interest payments are due on a monthly basis together with principal payments. The loaned amounts carry interest of 7% per year. Additionally, there is a credit reserve charge of 0.1% on the unused balance from each credit installment from the day immediately after it is made available through its date of use, when it is paid.

 

The BNDES Credit Facility is collateralized by first priority security interest in certain of our equipment and other tangible assets totaling R$24.9 million (approximately US$7.7 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016). We are a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under the BNDES Credit Facility. Additionally, we were required to provide a bank guarantee equal to 10% of the total approved amount (R$22.4 million in total debt) available under the BNDES Credit Facility. For advances in the second tranche (above R$19.1 million), we are required to provide additional bank guarantees equal to 90% of each such advance, plus additional Amyris guarantees equal to at least 130% of such advance. The BNDES Credit Facility contains customary events of default, including payment failures, failure to satisfy other obligations under the credit facility or related documents, defaults in respect of other indebtedness, bankruptcy, insolvency and inability to pay debts when due, material judgments, and changes in control of Amyris Brasil. If any event of default occurs, BNDES may terminate its commitments and declare immediately due all borrowings under the facility.

 

FINEP Credit Facility. In November 2010, we entered into a credit facility with Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), a state-owned company subordinated to the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (or the “FINEP Credit Facility”) to finance a research and development project on sugarcane-based biodiesel (or the “FINEP Project”) and provided for loans of up to an aggregate principal amount of R$6.4 million (approximately US$2.0 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016) which are secured by a chattel mortgage on certain equipment of Amyris as well as by bank letters of guarantee. All available credit under this facility was fully drawn. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the total outstanding loan balance under this credit facility was R$2.3 million (approximately US$0.7 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016) and R$3.4 million (approximately US$0.9 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2015).

 

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Interest on loans drawn under the FINEP Credit Facility is fixed at 5.0% per annum. In case of default under, or non-compliance with, the terms of the agreement, the interest on loans will be dependent on the long-term interest rate as published by the Central Bank of Brazil (such rate, the “TJLP”). If the TJLP at the time of default is greater than 6%, then the interest will be 5.0% plus a TJLP adjustment factor, otherwise the interest will be at 11.0% per annum. In addition, a fine of up to 10.0% will apply to the amount of any obligation in default. Additional interest on late balances will be 1.0% per month, levied on the overdue amount. Payment of the outstanding loan balance is being made in 81 monthly installments, which commenced in July 2012 and extends through March 2019. Interest on loans drawn and other charges are paid on a monthly basis and commenced in March 2011.

 

Senior Secured Loan Facility. In March 2014, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (LSA) with Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc. (Hercules) to make available a secured loan facility (Senior Secured Loan Facility) in the aggregate principal amount of up to $25.0 million, which loan facility was fully drawn at the closing. The initial loan of $25.0 million under the Senior Secured Loan Facility accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of either the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 6.25% or 9.5%. We may repay the outstanding amounts under the Senior Secured Credit Facility before the maturity date (October 15, 2018) if we pay an additional fee of 1% of the outstanding amounts. We were also required to pay a 1% facility charge at the closing of the Senior Secured Credit Facility, and are required to pay a 10% end of term charge with respect to the initial loan of $25.0 million. In connection with the entry into the LSA, we agreed to certain customary representations and warranties and covenants, as well as certain covenants that were subsequently amended (as described below).

 

In June 2014, we entered into a first amendment of the LSA with Hercules. Pursuant to the first amendment, the parties agreed to extend the maturity date of the loans under the Senior Secured Loan Facility from May 31, 2015 to February 1, 2017 and remove (i) a requirement for us to pay a forbearance fee of $10.0 million in the event certain covenants were not satisfied, (ii) a covenant that we maintain positive cash flow commencing with the fiscal quarter beginning October 1, 2014, (iii) a covenant that, commencing with the fiscal quarter beginning July 1, 2014, we and our subsidiaries achieve certain projected cash product revenues and projected cash product gross profits, and (iv) an obligation for us to file a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC by no later than June 30, 2014 and complete an equity financing of more than $50.0 million by no later than September 30, 2014. We further agreed to include a new covenant in the LSA requiring us to maintain unrestricted, unencumbered cash in an amount equal to at least 50% of the principal amount of the loans then outstanding under the Senior Secured Loan Facility (Minimum Cash Covenant) and borrow an additional $5.0 million under the Senior Secured Loan Facility. The additional $5.0 million borrowing was completed in June 2014, and accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of (i) the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 5.25% and (ii) 8.5%.

 

In March 2015, the Company and Hercules entered into a second amendment of the LSA. Pursuant to the second amendment, the parties agreed to, among other things, establish an additional credit facility in the principal amount of up to $15.0 million, which would be available to be drawn by the Company through the earlier of March 31, 2016 or such time as the Company raised an aggregate of at least $20.0 million through the sale of new equity securities. The additional facility was cancelled undrawn upon the completion of our private stock and warrant offering in July 2015.

 

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In November 2015, the Company and Hercules entered into a third amendment of the LSA. Pursuant to the third amendment, the Company borrowed an additional $10,960,000 (Third Amendment Borrowed Amount) from Hercules on November 30, 2015. As of December 1, 2015, after the funding of the Third Amendment Borrowed Amount (and including repayment of $9.1 million of principal that had occurred prior to the third amendment), the aggregate principal amount outstanding under the Senior Secured Loan Facility was approximately $31.7 million. The Third Amendment Borrowed Amount accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of (i) 9.5% and (ii) the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 6.25%, and, like the previous loans under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, has a maturity date of October 15, 2018. Upon the earlier of the maturity date, prepayment in full or such obligations otherwise becoming due and payable, in addition to repaying the outstanding Third Amendment Borrowed Amount (and all other amounts owed under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, as amended), the Company is also required to pay an end-of-term charge of $767,200. Pursuant to the third amendment, the Company also paid Hercules fees of $1.0 million, $750,000 of which was owed in connection with the expired $15.0 million facility under the second amendment and $250,000 of which was related to the Third Amendment Borrowed Amount. Under the third amendment, the parties agreed that the Company would, commencing on December 1, 2015, be required to pay only the interest accruing on all outstanding loans under the Senior Secured Loan Facility until February 29, 2016. Commencing on March 1, 2016, the Company would have been required to begin repaying principal of all loans under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, in addition to the applicable interest. However, pursuant to the third amendment, the Company could, by achieving certain cash inflow targets in 2016, extend the interest-only period to December 1, 2016. Upon the issuance and sale by the Company of $20.0 million of unsecured promissory notes and warrants in a private placement in February 2016 for aggregate cash proceeds of $20.0 million, the Company satisfied the conditions for extending the interest-only period to May 31, 2016. On June 1, 2016, the Company commenced the repayment of outstanding principal under the Senior Secured Loan Facility. In June 2016, the Company was notified by Hercules that it had transferred and assigned its rights and obligations under the Senior Secured Loan Facility to Stegodon Corporation (Stegodon), an affiliate of Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc. (Ginkgo). On June 29, 2016, in connection with the execution by the Company and Ginkgo of an initial strategic partnership agreement, the Company received a deferment of all scheduled principal repayments under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, as well as a waiver of the Minimum Cash Covenant, through October 31, 2016. Refer to Note 8, “Significant Agreements” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details. On October 6, 2016, in connection with the execution by the Company and Ginkgo of a definitive collaboration agreement (or the “Ginkgo Collaboration Agreement”), the Company and Stegodon entered into a fourth amendment of the LSA, pursuant to which the parties agreed to (i) subject to the Company extending the maturity of certain of its other outstanding indebtedness (or the “Extension Condition”), extend the maturity date of the Senior Secured Loan Facility, (ii) make the Senior Secured Loan Facility interest-only until maturity, subject to the requirement that the Company apply certain monies received by it under the Ginkgo Collaboration Agreement to repay the amounts outstanding under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, up to a maximum amount of $1 million per month and (iii) waive the Minimum Cash Covenant until the maturity date of the Senior Secured Loan Facility. In January 2017, the Company satisfied the Extension Condition and the maturity date of the loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility was extended to October 15, 2018. In December 2016, in connection with Stegodon granting certain waivers and releases under the LSA in connection with the Company’s formation of its Neossance joint venture with Nikko, as described in more detail in Note 7, "Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company agreed to pay to Stegodon (i) a fee of $425,000 on or prior to December 31, 2017 and (ii) a fee of $450,000 on or prior to the maturity date of the loans under the Senior Secured Credit Facility. Subsequently, in January 2017 the Company and Stegodon entered into a fifth amendment of the LSA, pursuant to which the Company agreed to apply additional monies received by it under the Ginkgo Collaboration Agreement towards repayment of the outstanding loans under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, up to a maximum amount of $3 million. Refer to Note 5, “Debt”, Note 8, “Significant Agreements” and Note 16, “Subsequent Events” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional details regarding the LSA and Senior Secured Loan Facility.

 

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As of December 31, 2016, $27.7 million was outstanding under the Senior Secured Loan Facility, net of discount and issuance cost of $0.9 million. The Senior Secured Loan Facility is secured by liens on our assets, including on certain of our intellectual property. The Senior Secured Loan Facility includes customary events of default, including failure to pay amounts due, breaches of covenants and warranties, material adverse effect events, certain cross defaults and judgments, and insolvency. If an event of default occurs, Stegodon may require immediate repayment of all amounts outstanding under the Senior Secured Loan Facility.

 

February 2016 Private Placement. In February 2016, we sold and issued to certain purchasers affiliated with members of our board of directors an aggregate of $20.0 million of unsecured promissory notes and warrants for the purchase, at an exercise price of $0.01 per share, of an aggregate of 2,857,142 shares of our common stock, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The exercisability of these warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on May 17, 2016.

 

June 2016 Private Placement. In June 2016, we sold and issued $5.0 million in aggregate principal amount of secured promissory notes to Foris Ventures, LLC (or “Foris”), an entity affiliated with director John Doerr of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, a current stockholder, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

October 2016 Private Placements. In October 2016, we sold and issued to Foris and Ginkgo, respectively, $6.0 million and $8.5 million in principal amount of secured promissory notes, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Guanfu Credit Facility. In October 2016, we entered into a credit agreement with Guanfu Holding Co., Ltd. to make available to the Company an unsecured credit facility with an aggregate principal amount of up to $25.0 million, which amount was fully drawn on December 31, 2016, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Salisbury Purchase Money Promissory Note. In December 2016, we sold and issued a purchase money promissory note in the principal amount of $3.5 million to Salisbury Partners, LLC in connection with our purchase of a production facility in Leland, North Carolina, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, "Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Nikko Promissory Note. In December 2016, we sold and issued a promissory note in the principal amount of $3.9 million to Nikko Chemicals Co., Ltd. in connection with the formation of our Neossance joint venture, as described in more detail in Note 5, “Debt” and Note 7, “Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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Common Stock Offerings. In December 2012, we completed a private placement of 14,177,849 shares of our common stock for aggregate cash proceeds of $37.2 million, of which $22.2 million was received in December 2012 and $15.0 million was received in January 2013. Of the 14,177,849 shares issued in the private placement, 1,677,852 of such shares were issued to Total in exchange for cancellation of $5.0 million of an outstanding convertible promissory note we previously issued to Total.

 

In March 2013, we completed a private placement of 1,533,742 of our common stock to Biolding SA (Biolding), which is affiliated with one of our directors, for aggregate proceeds of $5.0 million. This private placement represented the final tranche of Biolding's preexisting contractual obligation to fund $15.0 million upon satisfaction by us of certain criteria associated with the commissioning of our production plant in Brotas, Brazil.

 

In March 2014, we completed a private placement of 943,396 shares of our common stock to Kuraray for aggregate proceeds of $4.0 million.

 

In July 2015, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with certain purchasers, including entities affiliated with members of our board of directors, under which we agreed to sell 16,025,642 shares of our common stock at a price of $1.56 per share, for aggregate proceeds to the Company of $25 million. The sale of common stock under the Securities Purchase Agreement was completed on July 29, 2015. Pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, the Company granted to each of the purchasers a warrant exercisable at an exercise price of $0.01 per share for the purchase of a number of shares of the Company’s common stock equal to 10% of the shares purchased by such investor. The exercisability of the warrants was subject to stockholder approval, which was obtained on September 17, 2015. As of December 31, 2016, 160,255 of such warrants had been exercised.

 

In May 2016, we sold and issued 4,385,964 shares of our common stock to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in a private placement at a purchase price per share equal to $1.14, for aggregate proceeds to the Company of approximately $5.0 million, as described in more detail in Note 8, “Significant Agreements” ” in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Cash Flows during the Years Ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

 

Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for costs related to production and sales of our products and personnel-related expenditures, offset by cash received from product sales, grants, collaborations and license fees. Cash used in operating activities was $82.4 million, $85.1 million and $84.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

  98  
 

Net cash used in operating activities of $82.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 was attributable to our net loss of $97.3 million, offset by net non-cash charges of $4.0 million and net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $10.9 million. Net non-cash charges of $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 consisted primarily of $14.4 million of amortization of debt discount and issuance costs, $11.4 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, $7.3 million of asset impairment charges, $7.3 million of stock-based compensation, $4.1 million of loss from extinguishment of debt, $0.9 million of loss on foreign currency exchange rates, partially offset by $41.4 million of gain from the change in the fair value of derivative instruments related to the embedded derivative liabilities associated with certain of our convertible promissory notes and currency interest rate swap derivative liability and $0.1 million of gain on disposition of property, plant and equipment. Net change in operating assets and liabilities of $10.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 primarily consisted of a $19.1 million increase in accounts payable and accrued other liabilities, a $5.7 million decrease in inventory and a $0.7 million increase in deferred revenue related to funds received under collaboration agreements, partially offset by a $5.7 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets and deferred rent and a $8.9 million increase in accounts receivable and related party accounts receivable.

 

Net cash used in operating activities of $85.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 was attributable to our net loss of $218.1 million, offset by net non-cash charges of $113.8 million and net change in our operating assets and liabilities of $19.1 million. Net non-cash charges of $113.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 consisted primarily of a $58.6 million of amortization of debt discount and issuance costs, including a $36.6 million charge due to acceleration of accretion of debt discount on the Total and Temasek convertible notes converted to equity in July 2015, $16.3 million of loss from the change in the fair value of derivative instruments related to the embedded derivative liabilities associated with our senior convertible promissory notes and currency interest rate swap derivative liability, $12.9 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, $34.2 million of loss on purchase commitments and impairment of production assets, $9.1 million of stock-based compensation, $5.5 million of impairment of intangible assets, $4.7 million of withholding tax related to conversion of related party note, $4.2 million of loss from investment in affiliates, $1.1 million of loss from extinguishment of debt, $0.4 million of other non-cash expenses and $0.2 million on disposition of property, plant and equipment. Net change in operating assets and liabilities of $19.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 primarily consisted of a $15.3 million increase in accounts payable and accrued other liabilities and a $4.3 million decrease in accounts receivable and related party accounts receivable and a $4.5 million increase in inventory, partially offset by a $4.9 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets and deferred rent and $0.1 million decrease in deferred revenue related to the funds received under collaboration agreements.

 

Net cash used in operating activities of $84.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 was attributable to our net loss of $84.5 million excluding non-cash net income of $86.7 million, and a $0.2 million outflow from net changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Non-cash income of $86.7 million consisted primarily of a $144.1 million gain from change in the fair value of derivative instruments related to the embedded derivative liabilities associated with our senior secured convertible promissory notes and currency interest rate swap derivative liability, offset by $15.0 million of depreciation and amortization expenses, $14.1 million of stock-based compensation, $10.0 million of amortization of debt discount, $10.5 million loss associated with the extinguishment of convertible debt, $2.0 million loss on purchase commitments and write-off and disposal of property, plant and equipment, $2.9 million loss from investment in affiliate from our joint venture with Novvi and $3.0 million loss on impairment of IPR&D related to Draths. Net outflow from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $0.2 million primarily consisted of a $1.2 million increase in accounts receivable and related party accounts receivable, a $2.9 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, a $4.5 million increase in inventory as a result of the decrease in the allowance for lower of cost or market and a $3.2 million decrease in accounts payable, offset by a $6.8 million increase in accrued and other liabilities mainly due to an increase in accrued interest from new debt and a $4.8 million increase in deferred revenue from the collaboration agreement with Braskem and Michelin.

 

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Cash Flows from Investing Activities

 

Our investing activities consist primarily of capital expenditures and investment activities.

 

Net cash provided from investing activities of $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, was a result of $10.0 million of proceeds on disposal of noncontrolling interest and $6.2 million of maturities of short-term investments, offset by $0.9 million of purchase of property, plant and equipment, a $4.0 million increase in restricted cash and $5.5 million of purchase of short-term investments.

 

Net cash used in investing activities of $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, was a result of $3.3 million of purchase of property, plant and equipment, $1.6 million of loans to an affiliate, $2.7 million of purchase of short-term investments, offset by $2.3 million of maturities of short-term investments and $0.2 million of change in restricted cash.

 

Net cash used in investing activities of $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, was a result of $5.0 million of capital expenditures mainly due to maintenance and upgrades of our facility in Brotas, Brazil and $4.9 million loans and investment in our joint venture with Novvi ($2.8 million in loans and $2.1 million in equity).

 

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities of $92.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, was a result of the receipt of $63.9 million from debt financings, $29.7 million from notes payable issued to related parties, $5.0 million from proceeds from exercise of warrants and $5.0 million from proceeds from issuance of contingently redeemable equity, offset by $9.8 million of repayment of debt and $1.6 million of principal payments on capital leases.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities of $61.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, was a result of the receipt of $77.7 million from debt financings, of which $10.9 million was from debt issued to a related party, which related to the closing of the final installment of notes issued to Total under the Total Fuel Agreements and the receipt of $24.6 million from the issuance of common stock in private placements, offset by $40.8 million of repayment of debt.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities of $130.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, was a result of the net receipt of $139.5 million from debt and equity financing, which related to the closing of the second tranche of our convertible promissory note offering under the August 2013 SPA of $28.0 million, net of $6.0 million convertible promissory note issued to Total in exchange for cancellation of previously outstanding convertible promissory notes, borrowings under the Hercules Loan Facility of $29.8 million, the closing of our 2014 144A Offering for approximately $72.0 million proceeds (net of payments of discount and expenses of $3.0 million), the sale of $10.9 million convertible notes under the Total Fuel Agreements, $2.2 million from an export financing agreement with ABC Brasil and $4.7 million in proceeds from issuance of common stock, $4.0 million of which from issuance of common stock to Kuraray, offset by the $9.7 million settlement of convertible notes under the Total Fuel Agreements. These cash inflows were offset by other payments of debt principal and capital lease obligations of $6.8 million.

 

  100  
 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any material off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules, such as relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, which are often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, established for the purpose of facilitating financing transactions that are not required to be reflected on our consolidated financial statements.

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The following is a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2016 (in thousands):

 

    Total   2017   2018   2019   2020   2021   Thereafter
Principal payments on debt (1)   $ 267,985     $ 61,657     $ 52,802     $ 120,504     $ 2,225     $ 27,237     $ 3,560  
Interest payments on long-term debt, fixed rate (2)     50,562       18,257       18,344       7,936       2,867       2,642       516  
Operating leases     45,703       6,854       6,883       6,774       7,004       7,240       10,948  
Principal payments on capital leases     1,286       1,233       47       6                    
Interest payments on capital leases     30       28       2                          

Purchase obligations (3)

    837       808       29                          
Total   $ 366,403     $ 88,837     $ 78,107     $ 135,220     $ 12,096     $ 37,119     $ 15,024  

____________________

 

(1) The forecast payments assume no proceeds to be received by the Company under the Ginkgo Collaboration Agreement, which, if received, would need to be applied by the Company up to $1 million per month towards repayment of the debt due to Stegodon. Also including $11.8 million in 2017 related to Nomis Bay convertible note which, at the Company’s election, may be settled in shares or cash, and $46.8 million in 2018 and 2019 subject to Maturity Treatment Agreement, which will be converted to common stock at maturity, subject to there being no default under the terms of the debt.
     
(2) Does not include any obligations related to make-whole interest or downround provisions. The fixed interest rates are more fully described in Note 5, "Debt" in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
     
(3) Purchase obligations include noncancellable contractual obligations and construction commitments of $0.8 million, of which $0.6 million have been accrued as loss on purchase commitments.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The information contained in Note 2 in “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under the heading "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" is hereby incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 7.

 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

The market risk inherent in our market risk sensitive instruments and positions is the potential loss arising from adverse changes in: commodity market prices, foreign currency exchange rates, and interest rates as described below.

 

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Interest Rate Risk

 

Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio and our outstanding debt obligations (including embedded derivatives therein). We generally invest our cash in investments with short maturities or with frequent interest reset terms. Accordingly, our interest income fluctuates with short-term market conditions. As of December 31, 2016, our investment portfolio consisted primarily of money market funds and certificates of deposit, all of which are highly liquid investments. Due to the short-term nature of our investment portfolio, we do not believe that an immediate 10% increase in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair value of our portfolio. Since we believe we have the ability to liquidate this portfolio, we do not expect our operating results or cash flows to be materially affected to any significant degree by a sudden change in market interest rates on our investment portfolio. Additionally, as of December 31, 2016, 100% of our outstanding debt is in fixed rate instruments or instruments which have capped rates. Therefore, our exposure to the impact of variable interest rates is limited. Changes in interest rates may significantly change the fair value of our embedded derivative liabilities.

 

Foreign Currency Risk

 

Most of our sales contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars and, therefore, our revenues are not currently subject to significant foreign currency risk. The functional currency of our consolidated subsidiaries in Brazil is the local currency (Brazilian real) in which recurring business transactions occur. We do not use currency exchange contracts as hedges against amounts permanently invested in our foreign subsidiary. The amount we consider permanently invested in our foreign subsidiaries and translated into U.S. dollars using the year end exchange rate is $119.4 million at December 31, 2016 and $99.5 million at December 31, 2015. The increase in the permanent investments in our foreign subsidiaries between 2015 and 2016 is due to the appreciation of the Brazilian real versus the U.S. dollar, offset by the additional capital contributions made. The potential loss in foreign exchange translation, which would be recognized in Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), resulting from a hypothetical 10% adverse change in quoted Brazilian real exchange rates is $2.7 million and $4.9 million for 2016 and 2015, respectively. Actual results may differ.

 

We make limited use of derivative instruments, which include currency interest rate swap agreements, to manage the Company's exposure to foreign currency exchange rate and interest rate fluctuations related to the Company's Banco Pine loan. In June 2012, we entered into a currency interest rate swap arrangement with Banco Pine for R$22.0 million (approximately US$6.8 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2016). The swap arrangement exchanges the principal and interest payments under the Banco Pine loan entered into in July 2012 for alternative principal and interest payments that are subject to adjustment based on fluctuations in the foreign currency exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and Brazilian real. The swap has a fixed interest rate of 3.94%. This arrangement hedges the Company’s foreign currency exchange rate and interest rate exposure on the debt between the U.S. dollar and Brazilian real.

 

We analyzed our foreign currency exposure to identify assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies. For those assets and liabilities, we evaluated the effects of a 10% shift in exchange rates between those currencies and the U.S. dollar. We have determined that there would be an immaterial effect on our results of operations from such a shift.

 

Commodity Price Risk

 

Our primary exposure to market risk for changes in commodity prices currently relates to our purchases of sugar feedstocks. When possible, we manage our exposure to this risk primarily through the use of supplier pricing agreements.

 

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

AMYRIS, INC.

 

Index to Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules

 

  Page
Consolidated Financial Statements:  
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 104
Consolidated Balance Sheets 105
Consolidated Statements of Operations 106
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss 107
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Deficit 108
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows 109
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 111
Financial Statement Schedules:  
Schedule II Valuation and Qualifying Accounts 198

 

 

 

 

 

 

  103  
 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

Amyris, Inc.:

 

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Amyris, Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. These financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and on the financial statement schedule based on our audits. We conducted our audits of these financial statements in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations and has a net stockholders’ deficit that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 1. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

 

 

 

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

San Jose, California

April 17 , 2017

 

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Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)

 

    December 31,
    2016   2015
Assets                
Current assets:                
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 27,150     $ 11,992  
Restricted cash     4,326       216  
Short-term investments     1,374       1,520  
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $478 and $479, respectively     13,105       4,004  
Related party accounts receivable, net of allowance of $23 and $490, respectively     872       1,176  
Inventories, net     6,213       10,886  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     6,083       4,583  
Total current assets     59,123       34,377  
Property, plant and equipment, net     53,735       59,797  
Restricted cash     957       957  
Equity and loans in affiliates     34       68  
Other assets     15,464       10,357  
Goodwill and intangible assets     560       560  
Total assets   $ 129,873     $ 106,116  
Liabilities, Mezzanine Equity and Stockholders' Deficit                
Current liabilities:                
Accounts payable   $ 15,315     $ 7,943  
Deferred revenue     5,288       6,509  
Accrued and other current liabilities     29,188       24,268  
Capital lease obligation, current portion     922       523  
Debt, current portion (Note 16)     25,853       36,281  
Related party debt     33,302        
Total current liabilities     109,868       75,524  
Capital lease obligation, net of current portion     334       176  
Long-term debt, net of current portion     128,744       72,854  
Related party debt     39,144       42,839  
Deferred rent, net of current portion     8,906       9,682  
Deferred revenue, net of current portion     6,650       4,469  
Derivative liabilities     6,894       51,439  
Other liabilities     7,841       7,589  
Total liabilities     308,381       264,572  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)                
Mezzanine Equity                
Contingently redeemable common stock (Note 8)     5,000        
Stockholders’ deficit:                
Preferred stock - $0.0001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding            
Common stock - $0.0001 par value, 500,000,000  and 400,000,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2016 and 2015; 274,108,808 and 206,130,282 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively     27       21  
Additional paid-in capital     990,870       926,216  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss     (40,904 )     (47,198 )
Accumulated deficit     (1,134,438 )     (1,037,104 )
Total Amyris, Inc. stockholders’ deficit     (184,445 )     (158,065 )
Noncontrolling interest     937       (391 )
Total stockholders' deficit     (183,508 )     (158,456 )
Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and stockholders' deficit   $ 129,873     $ 106,116  

 

See the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014
Revenues                        
Renewable product sales   $ 24,788     $ 14,032     $ 22,793  
Related party renewable product sales     1,561       864       646  
Total product sales     26,349       14,896       23,439  
Grants, collaborations and license fee revenue     40,843       19,257       19,835  
Total revenues     67,192       34,153       43,274  
Cost and operating expenses                        
Cost of products sold     56,678       37,374       33,202  
Loss on purchase commitments, impairment of property, plant and equipment and other asset allowances     7,305       34,166       1,769  
Withholding tax related to conversion of related party notes           4,723        
Impairment of intangible assets           5,525       3,035  
Research and development     51,412       44,636       49,661  
Sales, general and administrative     47,721       56,262       55,435  
Total cost and operating expenses     163,116       182,686       143,102  
Loss from operations     (95,924 )     (148,533 )     (99,828 )
Other income (expense):                        
Interest income     258       264       387  
Interest expense     (37,629 )     (78,854 )     (28,949 )
Gain from change in fair value of derivative instruments     41,355       16,287       144,138  
Loss upon extinguishment of debt     (4,146 )     (1,141 )     (10,512 )
Other income (expense), net     (695 )     (1,423 )     336  
Total other income (expense)     (857 )     (64,867 )     105,400  
Income (loss) before income taxes and loss from investments in affiliates     (96,781 )     (213,400 )     5,572  
Provision for income taxes     (553 )     (468 )     (495 )
Net income (loss) before loss from investments in affiliates     (97,334 )     (213,868 )     5,077  
Loss from investments in affiliates           (4,184 )     (2,910 )
Net income (loss)     (97,334 )     (218,052 )     2,167  
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest           100       119  
Net income (loss) attributable to Amyris, Inc. common stockholders   $ (97,334 )   $ (217,952 )   $ 2,286  
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:                        
Basic   $ (0.41 )   $ (1.75 )   $ 0.03  
Diluted   $ (0.44 )   $ (1.75 )   $ (0.90 )
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding used in computing net income (loss) per share of common stock:                        
Basic     238,440,197       126,961,576       78,400,098  
Diluted     264,644,449       126,961,576       121,859,441  

 

See the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

  106  
 

Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(In Thousands)

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014
Comprehensive loss:                        
Net income (loss)   $ (97,334 )   $ (218,052 )   $ 2,167  
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax     6,294       (16,901 )     (9,798 )
Total comprehensive loss     (91,040 )     (234,953 )     (7,631 )
Income attributable to noncontrolling interest           100       119  
Foreign currency translation adjustment attributable to noncontrolling interest           (320 )     (92 )
Comprehensive loss attributable to Amyris, Inc.   $ (91,040 )   $ (235,173 )   $ (7,604 )

 

See the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

 

  107  
 

Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Deficit

(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)

 

    Common Stock                        
    Shares   Amount   Additional Paid-in Capital   Accumulated Deficit   Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss   Noncontrolling Interest   Total Deficit   Mezzanine Equity
December 31, 2013     76,662,812     $ 8     $ 706,253     $ (821,438 )   $ (20,087 )   $ (584 )   $ (135,848 )   $  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options, net of restricted stock     779,490             2,133                         2,133        
Issuance of common stock in a private placement     943,396             4,000                         4,000        
Shares issued from restricted stock unit settlement     836,185             (1,822 )                       (1,822 )      
Stock-based compensation                 14,105                         14,105        
Foreign currency translation adjustment                             (9,890 )     92       (9,798 )      
Net income                       2,286             (119 )     2,167        
December 31, 2014     79,221,883     $ 8     $ 724,669     $ (819,152 )   $ (29,977 )   $ (611 )   $ (125,063 )   $  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options, net of restricted stock     13,250             18                         18        
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of debt     62,192,238       6       96,616                         96,622        
Issuance of warrants on conversion of debt                 51,704                         51,704        
Shares issued from restricted stock settlement     908,877             (333 )                       (333 )      
Shares issued upon ESPP purchase     385,892             595                         595        
Issuance of common stock in a private placement, net of issuance costs     16,025,642       2       24,624                         24,626        
Stock-based compensation                 9,134                         9,134        
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of warrants     47,382,500       5       19,189                         19,194        
Foreign currency translation adjustment                             (17,221 )     320       (16,901 )      
Net loss                     $ (217,952 )           (100 )     (218,052 )      
December 31, 2015     206,130,282     $ 21     $ 926,216     $ (1,037,104 )   $ (47,198 )   $ (391 )   $ (158,456 )   $  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options, net of restricted stock     134                                            
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of debt     15,729,015       2       14,364                         14,366        
Issuance of common stock for settlement of debt principal payments     35,723,842       4       17,410                         17,414        
Issuance of warrants with debt private placement and collaboration agreements                 4,387                         4,387        
Shares issued from restricted stock settlement     1,803,496             (254 )                       (254 )      
Stock-based compensation                 7,325                         7,325        
Disposal of noncontrolling interest in Neossance LLC                     9,063                       937       10,000          
Contribution upon restructuring of Fuels JV                 4,252                         4,252        
Issuance of contingently redeemable common stock     4,385,964                                           5,000  
Shares issued upon ESPP purchase     336,075             180                         180        
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of warrants     10,000,000             10,435                         10,435        
Acquisitions of noncontrolling interests                 (2,508 )                 391       (2,117 )        
Foreign currency translation adjustment                             6,294             6,294        
Net loss                       (97,334 )                 (97,334 )      
December 31, 2016     274,108,808     $ 27     $ 990,870     $ (1,134,438 )   $ (40,904 )   $ 937     $ (183,508 )   $ 5,000  

 

See the accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

  108  
 

Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(In Thousands)

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014
Operating activities                        
Net income (loss)   $ (97,334 )   $ (218,052 )   $ 2,167  
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash used in operating activities:                        
Depreciation and amortization     11,374       12,920       14,969  
Loss (gain) on disposal of property, plant and equipment     (161 )     154       263  
Impairment of intangible assets           5,525       3,035  
Stock-based compensation     7,325       9,134       14,105  
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs     14,445       58,559       9,981  
Loss upon extinguishment of debt     4,146       1,141       10,512  
Loss on purchase commitments, impairment of property, plant and equipment and other asset allowances     7,305       34,166       1,769  
Withholding tax related to conversion of related party debt           4,723        
Change in fair value of derivative instruments     (41,355 )     (16,287 )     (144,138 )
Loss from investments in affiliates           4,184       2,910  
Other non-cash expenses     999       (413 )     (113 )
Changes in assets and liabilities:                        
Accounts receivable     (9,331 )     4,920       (1,217 )
Related party accounts receivable     372       (649 )     (4 )
Inventories, net     5,686       4,470       (4,481 )
Prepaid expenses and other assets     (4,913 )     (4,297 )     (2,907 )
Accounts payable     6,442       4,373       (3,209 )
Accrued and other liabilities     12,696       10,954       6,830  
Deferred revenue     714       (89 )     4,760  
Deferred rent     (777 )     (568 )     60  
Net cash used in operating activities     (82,367 )     (85,132 )     (84,708 )
Investing activities                        
Purchase of short-term investments     (5,559 )     (2,759 )     (1,371 )
Maturities of short-term investments     6,187       2,321       1,409  
Change in restricted cash     (4,040 )     240        
Proceeds on disposal of noncontrolling interest     10,000             (2,075 )
Loan to affiliate           (1,579 )     (2,790 )
Purchase of property, plant and equipment, net of disposals     (922 )     (3,367 )     (5,004 )
Change in restricted stock     (24 )            
Net cash provided (used) in investing activities     5,642       (5,144 )     (9,831 )
Financing activities                        
Proceeds from exercise of common stock, net of repurchases     180       614       2,488  
Employees' taxes paid upon vesting of restricted stock units     (253 )     (333 )     (1,822 )
Proceeds from issuance of common stock in private placements, net of issuance costs           24,625       4,000  
Proceeds from exercise of warrants     5,000       285        
Proceeds from issuance of contingently redeemable equity     5,000              
Principal payments on capital leases     (1,579 )     (729 )     (1,045 )
Proceeds from debt issued, net of discounts and issuance costs     63,911       66,931       83,171  
Proceeds from debt issued to related parties     29,699       10,850       49,862  
Principal payments on debt     (9,759 )     (40,819 )     (5,733 )
Net cash provided by financing activities     92,199       61,424       130,921  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents     (316 )     (1,203 )     (1,203 )
Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents     15,158       (30,055 )     35,179  
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period     11,992       42,047       6,868  
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period   $ 27,150     $ 11,992     $ 42,047  

 

  109  
 

Amyris, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows—(Continued)

(In Thousands)

 

    Years Ended December 31,
    2016   2015   2014
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:            
Cash paid for interest   $ 9,983     $ 9,425     $ 6,910  
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds   $     $     $  
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities:                        
Acquisitions of property, plant and equipment under accounts payable, accrued liabilities and notes payable   $ (1,276 )   $ (73 )   $ 114  
Financing of equipment   $ 2,136     $ 613     $ 617  
Financing of insurance premium under notes payable   $ (123 )   $ 53     $ 166  
Acquisition of noncontrolling interest in Glycotech via debt
  $ 3,906     $     $  
Purchase of property, plant and equipment via deposit   $ 24     $ (392 )   $  
Interest capitalized to debt   $ 3,147     $ 6,354     $ 5,590  
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of debt   $ 14,364     $   </