Amyris
AMYRIS, INC. (Form: 10-Q, Received: 05/07/2015 16:23:38)
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
 
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2015
OR
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Transition Period from              to
Commission File Number: 001-34885
 
AMYRIS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
55-0856151
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
Amyris, Inc.
5885 Hollis Street, Suite 100
Emeryville, CA 94608
(510) 450-0761
(Address and telephone number of principal executive offices)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   x     No   o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuance to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes   x     No   o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer.
 
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
x
       
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes   o     No   x

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

Class
Outstanding at April 30, 2015
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
79,924,220
 
 
 

 
AMYRIS, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2015
 
 
INDEX
 
   
Page
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
     
PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
 
   
   
 

 
 
 

 
PART I
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Assets
           
Current assets:
           
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 43,781     $ 42,047  
Restricted cash
    561        
Short-term investments
    1,167       1,375  
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $479 and $479, respectively
    4,674       8,687  
Related party accounts receivable
    688       455  
Inventories, net
    11,377       14,506  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    7,052       6,534  
Total current assets
    69,300       73,604  
Property, plant and equipment, net
    104,509       118,980  
Restricted cash
    957       1,619  
Equity and loans in affiliates
    1,627       2,260  
Other assets
    10,576       13,635  
Goodwill and intangible assets
    6,085       6,085  
Total assets
  $ 193,054     $ 216,183  
Liabilities and Deficit
               
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 4,649     $ 3,489  
Deferred revenue
    13,552       5,303  
Accrued and other current liabilities
    14,978       13,565  
Capital lease obligation, current portion
    277       541  
Debt, current portion
    18,193       17,100  
Total current liabilities
    51,649       39,998  
Capital lease obligation, net of current portion
    254       275  
Long-term debt, net of current portion
    93,132       100,122  
Related party debt
    131,129       115,239  
Deferred rent, net of current portion
    10,139       10,250  
Deferred revenue, net of current portion
    7,793       6,539  
Derivative liabilities
    76,577       59,736  
Other liabilities
    8,299       9,087  
Total liabilities
    378,972       341,246  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
               
Stockholders’ deficit:
               
Preferred stock - $0.0001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding
           
Common stock - $0.0001 par value, 300,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014; 79,222,633 and 79,221,883 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively
    8       8  
Additional paid-in capital
    727,321       724,669  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (41,489 )     (29,977 )
Accumulated deficit
    (871,392 )     (819,152 )
Total Amyris, Inc. stockholders’ deficit
    (185,552 )     (124,452 )
Noncontrolling interest
    (366 )     (611 )
Total stockholders' deficit
    (185,918 )     (125,063 )
Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit
  $ 193,054     $ 216,183  
 
See the accompanying notes to the unaudited condensed   consolidated financial statements.
 
 
3

 
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Revenues
           
Renewable product sales
  $ 2,095     $ 2,842  
Related party renewable product sales
          3  
Total product sales
    2,095       2,845  
Grants and collaborations revenue
    5,777       3,196  
Total grants and collaborations revenue
    5,777       3,196  
Total revenues
    7,872       6,041  
Cost and operating expenses
               
Cost of products sold
    6,643       6,236  
Loss on purchase commitments and write-off of property, plant and equipment
          107  
Research and development
    12,010       12,986  
Sales, general and administrative
    14,381       13,399  
Total cost and operating expenses
    33,034       32,728  
Loss from operations
    (25,162 )     (26,687 )
Other income (expense):
               
Interest income
    86       56  
Interest expense
    (8,482 )     (4,750 )
Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative instruments
    (17,412 )     57,400  
Loss from extinguishment of debt
          (9,430 )
Other expense, net
    (369 )     (122 )
Total other income (expense)
    (26,177 )     43,154  
Income (loss) before income taxes and loss from investments in affiliates
    (51,339 )     16,467  
Provision for income taxes
    (115 )     (111 )
Net income (loss) before loss from investments in affiliates
    (51,454 )     16,356  
Loss from investments in affiliates
    (808 )      
Net income (loss)
    (52,262 )     16,356  
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest
    22       29  
Net income (loss) attributable to Amyris, Inc. common stockholders
  $ (52,240 )   $ 16,385  
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
               
Basic
  $ (0.66 )   $ 0.21  
Diluted
  $ (0.66 )   $ (0.34 )
Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding used in computing net loss per share of common stock:
               
Basic
    79,222,051       76,830,388  
Diluted
    79,222,051       117,097,976  

See the accompanying notes to the unaudited condensed   consolidated financial statements.
 
 
4

 
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(In Thousands)
(Unaudited)
   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Comprehensive income (loss):
           
Net income (loss)
  $ (52,262 )   $ 16,356  
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax
    (11,245 )     2,833  
Total comprehensive income (loss)
    (63,507 )     19,189  
Income attributable to noncontrolling interest
    22       29  
Foreign currency translation adjustment attributable to noncontrolling interest
    (267 )     23  
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Amyris, Inc.
  $ (63,752 )   $ 19,241  

See the accompanying notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 

 
 
5

 
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Deficit
(In Thousands, Except Share Amounts)
(Unaudited)

   
Common Stock
                               
   
Shares
   
Amount
   
Additional Paid-in Capital
   
Accumulated Deficit
   
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
   
Noncontrolling Interest
   
Total Deficit
 
December 31, 2014
    79,221,883     $ 8     $ 724,669     $ (819,152 )   $ (29,977 )   $ (611 )   $ (125,063 )
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options, net of restricted stock
    750                                      
Stock-based compensation
                2,652                         2,652  
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax
                            (11,512 )     267       (11,245 )
Net loss
                      (52,240 )           (22 )     (52,262 )
March 31, 2015
    79,222,633     $ 8     $ 727,321     $ (871,392 )   $ (41,489 )   $ (366 )   $ (185,918 )
 
See the accompanying notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 

 
6

 
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In Thousands)
(Unaudited)

   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Operating activities
           
Net income (loss)
  $ (52,262 )   $ 16,356  
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash used in operating activities:
               
Depreciation and amortization
    3,490       3,800  
Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment
    26       33  
Stock-based compensation
    2,652       3,514  
Amortization of debt discount
    3,222       1,599  
Loss from extinguishment of debt
          9,430  
Loss on purchase commitments and write-off of property, plant and equipment
          107  
Change in fair value of derivative instruments
    17,412       (57,400 )
Loss from investments in affiliates
    808        
Other non-cash expenses
          16  
Changes in assets and liabilities:
               
Accounts receivable
    4,405       5,095  
Related party accounts receivable
    (196 )     (142 )
Inventories, net
    2,227       209  
Prepaid expenses and other assets
    376       (410 )
Accounts payable
    382       (946 )
Accrued and other liabilities
    4,782       (732 )
Deferred revenue
    9,512       9,500  
Deferred rent
    (112 )     18  
Net cash used in operating activities
    (3,276 )     (9,953 )
Investing activities
               
Purchase of short-term investments
    (877 )     (881 )
Maturities of short-term investments
    893       1,030  
Purchases of property, plant and equipment, net of disposals
    (1,084 )     (1,308 )
Net cash used in investing activities
    (1,068 )     (1,159 )
Financing activities
               
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of repurchases
          1,015  
Principal payments on capital leases
    (365 )     (256 )
Proceeds from debt issued
          29,883  
Proceeds from debt issued to related party
    10,850       25,000  
Principal payments on debt
    (3,167 )     (3,046 )
Net cash provided by financing activities
    7,318       52,596  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
    (1,240 )     (554 )
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
    1,734       40,930  
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
    42,047       6,868  
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
  $ 43,781     $ 47,798  
 
 
 
7

 
Amyris, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows—(Continued)
(In Thousands)
 

   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
           
Cash paid for interest
  $ 1,519     $ 967  
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities:
               
Acquisitions of property, plant and equipment under accounts payable, accrued liabilities and notes payable
  $ (233 )   $ (75 )
Financing of equipment
  $ 80        
Financing of insurance premium under notes payable
  $ (23 )   $ (41 )
Interest capitalized to debt
  $ 3,451     $  
Purchase of property, plant and equipment via deposit
  $ (392 )      
Receivable of proceeds for options exercised
        $ (355 )

See the accompanying notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
 
8

 
Amyris, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
 

1. The Company

Amyris, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in California on July 17, 2003 and reincorporated in Delaware on June 10, 2010 for the purpose of leveraging breakthroughs in industrial bioscience technology to develop and provide renewable compounds for a variety of markets. The Company is currently applying its industrial bioscience technology platform to provide alternatives to select petroleum-sourced products used in consumer care, specialty chemical and transportation fuel markets worldwide. The Company's first commercialization efforts have been focused on a renewable hydrocarbon molecule called farnesene (Biofene®), which forms the basis for a wide range of products including emollients, fragrance oils and diesel fuel. While the Company's platform is able to use a wide variety of feedstocks, the Company is initially focused on Brazilian sugarcane. In addition, the Company is a party to various contract manufacturing agreements to support its commercial production needs. The Company has established two principal operating subsidiaries, Amyris Brasil Ltda. (formerly Amyris Brasil S.A., or "Amyris Brasil") for production in Brazil, and Amyris Fuels, LLC (or "Amyris Fuels").

The Company's renewable products business strategy is to focus on direct commercialization of specialty products while moving established commodity products into joint venture arrangements with leading industry partners. To commercialize its products, the Company must be successful in using its technology to manufacture products at commercial scale and on an economically viable basis (i.e., low per unit production costs) and developing sufficient sales volume for those products to support its operations. The Company's prospects are subject to risks, expenses and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in this stage of development.

The Company expects to fund its operations for the foreseeable future with cash and investments currently on hand, with cash inflows from collaborations and grants, cash contributions from product sales, and with new debt and equity financings. The Company's planned 2015 and 2016 working capital needs and its planned operating and capital expenditures are dependent on significant inflows of cash from new and existing collaboration partners and from cash generated from renewable product sales, and may also require additional funding from debt or equity financings.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred significant losses since its inception and believes that it will continue to incur losses and negative cash flow from operations through at least 2015. As of March 31, 2015, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $871.4 million and had cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $44.9 million. The Company has significant outstanding debt and contractual obligations related to capital and operating leases, as well as purchase commitments.

 As of March 31, 2015, the Company's debt, net of discount of $77.2 million, totaled $242.5 million, of which $18.2 million matures within the next twelve months. In addition to upcoming debt maturities, the Company's debt service obligations over the next twelve months are significant, including $9.5 million of anticipated cash interest payments. The Company's debt agreements contain various covenants, including certain restrictions on the Company's business that could cause the Company to be at risk of defaults, such as the requirement to maintain unrestricted, unencumbered cash in an amount equal to at least 50% of the principal amount outstanding under its loan facility with Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc.  Please refer to Note 5, “Debt” and Note 6, “Commitments and Contingencies” for further details regarding the Company's debt service obligations and commitments.
 
The Company’s operating plan for 2015 contemplates significant reduction in the Company’s net cash outflows, resulting from (i) revenue growth from sales of existing and new products with positive gross margins, (ii) reduced production costs compared to prior periods as a result of manufacturing and technical developments in 2014, (iii) increased cash inflows from collaborations compared to 2014 (iv) maintaining operating expenses at levels comparable to 2014, and (v) access to various financing commitments.

 
9

 
If the Company is unable to raise additional financing, or if other expected sources of funding are delayed or not received, the Company would take the following actions as early as the second quarter of 2015 to support our liquidity needs through the remainder of 2015 and into 2016:

 
Effect significant headcount reductions, particularly with respect to employees not connected to critical or contracted activities across all functions of the Company, including employees involved in general and administrative, research and development, and production activities.

 
Shift focus to existing products and customers with significantly reduced investment in new product and commercial development efforts.

 
Reduce production activity at our Brotas manufacturing facility to levels only sufficient to satisfy volumes required for product revenues forecast from existing products and customers.

 
Reduce expenditures for third party contractors, including consultants, professional advisors and other vendors.

 
Reduce or delay uncommitted capital expenditures, including non-essential facility and lab equipment, and information technology projects.

 
Closely monitor the Company working capital position with customers and suppliers, as well as suspend operations at pilot plants and demonstration facilities.

The contingency cash plan contemplating these actions is designed to save the Company an estimated $30.0 million to $40.0 million over the period through March 31, 2016.

Implementing this plan could have a negative impact on the Company's ability to continue its business as currently contemplated, including, without limitation, delays or failures in its ability to:

 
Achieve planned production levels;

 
Develop and commercialize products within planned timelines or at planned scales; and

 
Continue other core activities.

Furthermore, any inability to scale-back operations as necessary, and any unexpected liquidity needs, could create pressure to implement more severe measures. Such measures could have an adverse effect on the Company's ability to meet contractual requirements, including obligations to maintain manufacturing operations, and increase the severity of the consequences described above.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and with the instructions for Form 10-Q and Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required for complete financial statements. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 31, 2015. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

We use the equity method to account for investments in companies, if our investments provide us with the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee. Our consolidated net income or loss includes the Company’s proportionate share of the net income or loss of these companies. Our judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investment includes considering key factors such as our ownership interest, representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making decisions and material intercompany transactions.

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of Amyris, Inc., its subsidiaries and two consolidated VIEs with respect to which the Company is considered the primary beneficiary, after elimination of intercompany accounts and transactions. Disclosure regarding the Company’s participation in the VIEs is included in Note 7, "Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest."

 
10

 
Variable Interest Entities

The Company has interests in joint venture entities that are variable interest entities (or “VIEs”). Determining whether to consolidate a VIE requires judgment in assessing (i) whether an entity is a VIE and (ii) if the Company is the entity’s primary beneficiary and thus required to consolidate the entity. To determine if the Company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, the Company evaluates whether it has (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The Company’s evaluation includes identification of significant activities and an assessment of its ability to direct those activities based on governance provisions and arrangements to provide or receive product and process technology, product supply, operations services, equity funding and financing and other applicable agreements and circumstances. The Company’s assessment of whether it is the primary beneficiary of its VIEs requires significant assumptions and judgment.

Use of Estimates

In preparing the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, management must make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Unaudited Interim Financial Information

The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures are unaudited, have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of the results of operations for the periods presented.

The year-end condensed consolidated balance sheet data was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP. The condensed consolidated results of operations for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or for any other future year or interim period.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (or “FASB”) issued new guidance related to revenue recognition. This new standard will replace all current GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminate all industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition update guidance provides a unified model to determine how revenue is recognized. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This guidance is currently due to be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and can be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. In April 2015, the FASB proposed a one year deferral of the effective date to December 15, 2017 and early application would be permitted, but not before the original effective date of December 15, 2016.

In August 2014, FASB issued new guidance related to the disclosure around going concern. The new standard provides guidance around management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosure if substantial doubt exists. The new standard is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016 and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on our financial statements.

In January 2015, the FASB issued an update related to the presentation of extraordinary and unusual items. The update eliminates the concept of extraordinary items found in Subtopic 225-20, which required that an entity separately classify, present and disclose extraordinary events and transactions when the event or activity met both criteria of being unusual in nature and infrequent in occurrence. Although the concept of extraordinary items will be eliminated, the presentation and disclosure guidance for items that are unusual in nature or occur infrequently will be retained and will be expanded to include items that are both unusual in nature and infrequently occurring. The standard is effective for annual and interim periods within those annual years beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company expects that the adoption of the update will not materially affect its financial statements.

 
11

 
In February 2015, FASB issued an amendment to ASC 810 Consolidation. The amendments affect reporting entities that are required to evaluate whether they should consolidate certain legal entities. The amendments are effective for the fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of adopting this new accounting standard on its financial statements.

In April 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs , which requires debt issuance costs to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability, consistent with the presentation of a debt discount. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by this guidance. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. This will represent a change from the Company’s current treatment of debt issuance costs, which are reported in other assets.

3. Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The inputs to the valuation techniques used to measure fair value are classified into the following categories:

Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.

As of March 31, 2015, the Company’s financial assets and financial liabilities are presented below at fair value and were classified within the fair value hierarchy as follows (in thousands):

   
Level 1
   
Level 2
   
Level 3
   
Balance as of
March 31, 2015
 
Financial Assets
                       
Money market funds
  $ 20,255     $     $     $ 20,255  
Certificates of deposit
    1,167                   1,167  
Loan to affiliate
                1,559       1,559  
Total financial assets
  $ 21,422     $     $ 1,559     $ 22,981  
Financial Liabilities
                               
Loans payable (1)
  $     $ 11,815     $     $ 11,815  
Credit facilities (1)
          37,485             37,485  
Convertible notes (1)
                241,248       241,248  
Compound embedded derivative liability
                71,952       71,952  
Currency interest rate swap derivative liability
          4,625             4,625  
Total financial liabilities
  $     $ 53,925     $ 313,200     $ 367,125  
________
(1) These liabilities are carried on the condensed consolidated balance sheet on a historical basis.

The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability. The fair values of money market funds and certificates of deposit are based on fair values of identical assets. The fair values of the loans payable, convertible notes, credit facilities and currency interest rate swaps are based on the present value of expected future cash flows and assumptions about current interest rates and the creditworthiness of the Company. The method of determining the fair value of the compound embedded derivative liabilities is described below. Market risk associated with the fixed and variable rate long-term loans payable, credit facilities and convertible notes relates to the potential reduction in fair value and negative impact to future earnings, from an increase in interest rates. The fair value of loans to affiliates is based on the present value of expected future cash flows and assumptions about interest rates and the creditworthiness of the affiliate. Market risk associated with the compound embedded derivative liabilities relates to the potential reduction in fair value and negative impact to future earnings from a decrease in interest rates.

The carrying amounts of certain financial instruments, such as cash equivalents, short term investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities and low market interest rates, if applicable.

 
12

 
As of December 31, 2014, the Company’s financial assets and financial liabilities are presented below at fair value and were classified within the fair value hierarchy as follows (in thousands):


   
Level 1
   
Level 2
   
Level 3
   
Balance as of
December 31, 2014
 
Financial Assets
                       
Money market funds
  $ 20,160     $     $     $ 20,160  
Certificates of deposit
    1,375                   1,375  
Loans to affiliate
                1,745       1,745  
Total financial assets
  $ 21,535     $     $ 1,745     $ 23,280  
Financial Liabilities
                               
Loans payable
  $     $ 16,720     $     $ 16,720  
Credit facilities
          39,332             39,332  
Convertible notes
                222,031       222,031  
Compound embedded derivative liability
                56,026       56,026  
Currency interest rate swap derivative liability
          3,710             3,710  
Total financial liabilities
  $     $ 59,762     $ 278,057     $ 337,819  

The following table provides a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for the convertible notes measured at fair value using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) (in thousands):
 
   
2015
 
Balance at January 1
  $ 222,031  
Additions to convertible notes
    14,301  
Change in fair value of convertible notes
    4,916  
Balance at March 31
  $ 241,248  

Derivative Instruments

The following table provides a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for the compound embedded derivative liability measured at fair value using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) (in thousands):

   
2015
 
Balance at January 1
  $ 56,026  
Additions to Level 3
    229  
Total income (loss) from change in fair value of derivative liability
    15,697  
Balance at March 31
  $ 71,952  
 
 
 
13

 
The compound embedded derivative liabilities, represent the fair value of the equity conversion options and "make-whole" provisions or down round conversion price adjustments to provisions of outstanding convertible promissory notes issued to Total Energies Nouvelles Activités USA (formerly known as Total Gas & Power USA, SAS, or “Total” and such convertible promissory notes, the “Total Notes”),, as well as Tranche I Notes (as defined below), Tranche II Notes (as defined below) and notes issued under the Rule 144A convertible notes offering (or the “Rule 144A Notes”) (see Note 5, "Debt"). There is no current observable market for these types of derivatives and, as such, the Company determined the fair value of the embedded derivatives using a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model for the Total Notes and the binomial lattice model for the Tranche I Notes, Tranche II Notes and the Rule 144A Notes (or together the “Convertible Notes”). A Monte Carlo simulation valuation model combines expected cash outflows with market-based assumptions regarding risk-adjusted yields, stock price volatility, probability of a change of control and the trading information of the Company's common stock into which the notes are or may be convertible. A binomial lattice model generates two probable outcomes - one up and another down - arising at each point in time, starting from the date of valuation until the maturity date. A lattice model was used to determine if the convertible notes would be converted, called or held at each decision point. Within the lattice model, the following assumptions are made: (i) the Convertible Notes will be converted early if the conversion value is greater than the holding value and (ii) the Convertible Notes will be called if the holding value is greater than both (a) redemption price and (b) the conversion value at the time. If the Convertible Notes are called, then the holder will maximize their value by finding the optimal decision between (1) redeeming at the redemption price and (2) converting the Convertible Notes. Using this lattice method, the Company valued the embedded derivatives using the "with-and-without method", where the fair value of the Convertible Notes including the embedded derivative is defined as the "with", and the fair value of the Convertible Notes excluding the embedded derivatives is defined as the "without". This method estimates the fair value of the embedded derivatives by looking at the difference in the values between the Convertible Notes with the embedded derivatives and the fair value of the Convertible Notes without the embedded derivatives. The lattice model uses the stock price, conversion price, maturity date, risk-free interest rate, estimated stock volatility and estimated credit spread. The Company marks the compound embedded derivatives to market due to the conversion price not being indexed to the Company's own stock. Except for the "make-whole interest" provision included in the conversion option, which is only required to be settled in cash upon a change of control at the noteholder's option, the compound embedded derivative will be settled in either cash or shares. As of March 31, 2015, the Company has sufficient common stock available to settle the conversion option in shares. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, included in "Derivative Liabilities" on the consolidated balance sheet are the Company's compound embedded derivative liabilities of $72.0 million and $56.0 million, respectively, which represents the fair value of the equity conversion options and a "make-whole" provision relating to the outstanding Total Notes, Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes.

The market-based assumptions and estimates used in valuing the compound embedded derivative liabilities include amounts in the following ranges/amounts:
 
   
March 31, 2015
   
March 31, 2014
 
Risk-free interest rate
   0.53% - 1.18%      0.86% - 1.65%  
Risk-adjusted yields
   21.3%
and
24.4%        14.7%    
Stock-price volatility
    45%         45%    
Probability of change in control
    5%         5%    
Stock price
    $2.40         $3.73    
Credit spread
   20.20% - 23.22%      13.05% - 13.84%  

Changes in valuation assumptions can have a significant impact on the valuation of the embedded derivative liabilities. For example, all other things being equal, a decrease/ increase in our stock price, probability of change of control, credit spread or stock price volatility decreases/increases the valuation of the liabilities, whereas a decrease/increase in risk adjusted yields or risk-free interest rates increases/decreases the valuation of the liabilities.

In June 2012, the Company entered into a loan agreement with Banco Pine S.A. (or Banco Pine) under which Banco Pine provided the Company with a loan (or the Banco Pine Bridge Loan) (see Note 5, "Debt"). At the time of the Banco Pine Bridge Loan, the Company also entered into a currency interest rate swap arrangement with Banco Pine with respect to the repayment of R$22.0 million (approximately US$6.9 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) of the Banco Pine Bridge Loan. The swap arrangement exchanges the principal and interest payments under the Banco Pine Bridge Loan for alternative principal and interest payments that are subject to adjustment based on fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and Brazilian real. The swap has a fixed interest rate of 3.94%. Changes in the fair value of the swap are recognized in “Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative instruments" in the consolidated statements of operations.

 
14

 
Derivative instruments measured at fair value as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, and their classification on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and condensed consolidated statements of operations, are presented in the following tables (in thousands except contract amounts):

   
Liability as of
 
   
March 31, 2015
   
December 31, 2014
 
Type of Derivative Contract
 
Quantity of
Short
Contracts
   
Fair Value
   
Quantity of
Short
Contracts
   
Fair Value
 
Currency interest rate swap, included as net liability in derivative liability
    1     $ 4,625       1     $ 3,710  
 
 
  Income  
Three Months Ended March 31,
Type of Derivative Contract
Statement Classification
 
2015
   
2014
 
     
Gain (Loss) Recognized
Currency interest rate swap
Gain (loss) from change in fair value of derivative instruments
  $ (1,715 )   $ 191  


4. Balance Sheet Components

Inventories, net

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market and consist of the following (in thousands):

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Raw materials
  $ 2,282     $ 2,665  
Work-in-process
    4,010       5,269  
Finished goods
    5,085       6,572  
Inventories, net
  $ 11,377     $ 14,506  

Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets are comprised of the following (in thousands):

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Maintenance
  $ 401     $ 399  
Prepaid insurance
    760       701  
Manufacturing catalysts
    1,286       1,166  
Recoverable VAT and other taxes
    2,604       2,411  
Debt issuance costs
    1,139        
Other
    862       1,857  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
  $ 7,052     $ 6,534  

Property, Plant and Equipment, net

Property, plant and equipment, net is comprised of the following (in thousands):
 
   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Leasehold improvements
  $ 38,815     $ 39,132  
Machinery and equipment
    80,461       90,657  
Computers and software
    8,907       8,946  
Furniture and office equipment
    2,328       2,445  
Buildings
    5,233       6,321  
Vehicles
    302       353  
Construction in progress
    36,453       38,815  
      172,499       186,669  
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization
    (67,990 )     (67,689 )
Property, plant and equipment, net
  $ 104,509     $ 118,980  

 
15

 
The Company's first, purpose-built, large-scale Biofene production plant in southeastern Brazil commenced operations in December 2012. This plant is located at Brotas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and is adjacent to an existing sugar and ethanol mill, Tonon Bioenergia S.A. (or “Tonon”) (formerly Paraíso Bioenergia). The Company's construction in progress consists primarily of the upfront plant design and the initial construction of a second large-scale production plant in Brazil, located at the São Martinho sugar and ethanol mill (also in the state of São Paulo, Brazil).

Property, plant and equipment, net includes $0.7 million and $4.1 million of machinery and equipment under capital leases as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. Accumulated amortization of assets under capital leases totaled $0.1 million and $2.3 million as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.

Depreciation and amortization expense, including amortization of assets under capital leases was $3.5 million and $3.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Other Assets (non-current)

Other assets are comprised of the following (in thousands):  

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Deposits on property and equipment, including taxes
  $ 1,024     $ 1,738  
Recoverable taxes from Brazilian government entities
    7,412       9,747  
Debt issuance costs
    931       851  
Other
    1,209       1,299  
Total other assets
  $ 10,576     $ 13,635  

Accrued and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued and other current liabilities are comprised of the following (in thousands):

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Professional services
  $ 3,335     $ 2,015  
Accrued vacation
    2,188       2,213  
Payroll and related expenses
    3,179       5,393  
Tax-related liabilities
    1,421       277  
Deferred rent, current portion
    1,111       1,111  
Accrued interest
    2,250       1,308  
Contractual obligations to contract manufacturers
    425       310  
Other
    1,069       938  
Total accrued and other current liabilities
  $ 14,978     $ 13,565  

Derivative Liabilities

Derivative liabilities are comprised of the following (in thousands):

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Fair market value of swap obligation
  $ 4,625     $ 3,710  
Fair value of compound embedded derivative liabilities (1)
    71,952       56,026  
Total derivative liabilities
  $ 76,577     $ 59,736  
______________
(1)
The compound embedded derivative liabilities represent the fair value of the bifurcated conversion options that contain "make-whole" provisions or down round conversion price adjustment provisions included in the outstanding Total Notes, Tranche I Notes, Tranche II Notes and the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering (see Note 3, "Fair value of financial instruments" and Note 5, "Debt").
 
 
16

 
5. Debt

Debt is comprised of the following (in thousands):

   
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
             
FINEP credit facility
  $ 1,258     $ 1,614  
BNDES credit facility
    3,275       4,314  
Hercules loan facility
    29,805       29,779  
Total credit facilities
    34,338       35,707  
Convertible notes
    61,795       60,418  
Related party convertible notes
    131,129       115,239  
Loans payable
    15,192       21,097  
Total debt
    242,454       232,461  
Less: current portion
    (18,193 )     (17,100 )
Long-term debt
  $ 224,261     $ 215,361  

FINEP Credit Facility

In November 2010, the Company entered into a credit facility with Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (or the “FINEP Credit Facility”). The FINEP Credit Facility was extended to partially fund expenses related to the Company’s research and development project on sugarcane-based biodiesel (or the “FINEP Project”) and provided for loans of up to an aggregate principal amount of R$6.4 million (approximately US$2.0 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015), which is secured by a chattel mortgage on certain equipment of Amyris Brasil as well as by bank letters of guarantee. All available credit under this facility is fully drawn.

Interest on loans drawn under the FINEP Credit Facility is fixed at 5% per annum. In case of default under or non-compliance with the terms of the agreement, the interest on loans will be dependent on the long-term interest rate as published by the Central Bank of Brazil (such rate, the “TJLP”). If the TJLP at the time of default is greater than 6%, then the interest will be 5% plus a TJLP adjustment factor, otherwise the interest will be 11% per annum. In addition, a fine of up to 10% shall apply to the amount of any obligation in default. Interest on late balances will be 1% per month, levied on the overdue amount. Payment of the outstanding loan balance is being made in 81 monthly installments, which commenced in July 2012 and extends through March 2019. Interest on loans drawn and other charges are paid on a monthly basis and commenced in March 2011. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the total outstanding loan balance under the FINEP Credit Facility was R$4.0 million (approximately US$1.2 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) and R$4.3 million (approximately US$1.6 million based on exchange rate as of December 31, 2014), respectively.

The FINEP Credit Facility contains the following significant terms and conditions:
 
 
the Company was required to share with FINEP the costs associated with the FINEP Project. At a minimum, the Company was required to contribute from its own funds approximately R$14.5 million (approximately US$4.5 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) of which R$11.1 million was contributed prior to the release of the second disbursement. All four disbursements were completed and the Company has fulfilled all of its cost sharing obligations;
 
 
after the release of the first disbursement, prior to any subsequent drawdown from the FINEP Credit Facility, the Company was required to provide bank letters of guarantee of up to R$3.3 million in aggregate (approximately US$1.0 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). On December 17, 2012 and prior to release of the second disbursement on December 26, 2012, the Company obtained the required  bank letter of guarantees from Banco ABC Brasil S.A. (or "ABC"); and
 
 
amounts disbursed under the FINEP Credit Facility were required to be used towards the FINEP Project within 30 months after the contract execution.

 
17

 
BNDES Credit Facility

In December 2011, the Company entered into a credit facility with the Brazilian Development Bank (or “BNDES” and such credit facility is the “BNDES Credit Facility”) in the amount of R$22.4 million (approximately US$7.0 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). This BNDES Credit Facility was extended as project financing for a production site in Brazil. The credit line is divided into an initial tranche of up to approximately R$19.1 million and an additional tranche of approximately R$3.3 million that becomes available upon delivery of additional guarantees. The credit line was available for 12 months from the date of the BNDES Credit Facility, subject to extension by the lender. The credit line was cancelled in 2013.
 
The principal of the loans under the BNDES Credit Facility is required to be repaid in 60 monthly installments, with the first installment paid in January 2013 and the last due in December 2017. Interest was due initially on a quarterly basis with the first installment due in March 2012. From and after January 2013, interest payments are due on a monthly basis together with principal payments. The loaned amounts carry interest of 7% per annum. Additionally, there is a credit reserve charge of 0.1% on the unused balance from each credit installment from the day immediately after it is made available through its date of use, when it is paid.

The BNDES Credit Facility is collateralized by a first priority security interest in certain of the Company's equipment and other tangible assets totaling R$24.9 million (approximately $7.8 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). The Company is a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under the BNDES Credit Facility. Additionally, the Company was required to provide a bank guarantee equal to 10% of the total approved amount (R$22.4 million in total debt) available under the BNDES Credit Facility. For advances of the second tranche (above R$19.1 million), the Company is required to provide additional bank guarantees equal to 90% of each such advance, plus additional Company guarantees equal to at least 130% of such advance. The BNDES Credit Facility contains customary events of default, including payment failures, failure to satisfy other obligations under this credit facility or related documents, defaults in respect of other indebtedness, bankruptcy, insolvency and inability to pay debts when due, material judgments, and changes in control of Amyris Brasil. If any event of default occurs, BNDES may terminate its commitments and declare immediately due all borrowings under the facility. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the Company had R$10.5 million (approximately US$3.3 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) and R$11.5 million (approximately US$4.3 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2014), respectively, in outstanding advances under the BNDES Credit Facility.

Hercules Loan Facility

In March 2014, the Company entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Hercules Technology Growth Capital, Inc. (or “Hercules”) to make available to Amyris a loan in the aggregate principal amount of up to $25.0 million (or the "Hercules Loan Facility"). The original Hercules Loan Facility accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of either the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 6.25% or 9.50%. The Company may repay the loaned amounts before the maturity date (generally February 1, 2017) if it pays an additional fee of 3% of the outstanding loans (1% if after the initial twelve-month period of the loan). The Company was also required to pay a 1% facility charge at the closing of the transaction, and is required to pay a 10% end of term charge. In connection with the original Hercules Loan Facility, Amyris agreed to certain customary representations and warranties and covenants, as well as certain covenants that were subsequently amended (as described below). The total available credit of $25.0 million under this facility was fully drawn down by the Company.

In June 2014, the Company and Hercules entered into a first amendment (or the “First Hercules Amendment”) of Hercules Loan Facility. Pursuant to the First Hercules Amendment, the parties agreed to adjust the term loan maturity date from May 31, 2015 to February 1, 2017 and remove (i) a requirement for the Company to pay a forbearance fee of $10.0 million in the event certain covenants were not satisfied, (ii) a covenant that the Company maintain positive cash flow commencing with the fiscal quarter beginning October 1, 2014, (iii) a covenant that, beginning with the fiscal quarter beginning July 1, 2014, the Company and its subsidiaries achieve certain projected cash product revenues and projected cash product gross profits, and (iv) an obligation for the Company to file a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC by no later than June 30, 2014 and complete an equity financing of more than $50.0 million by no later than September 30, 2014. The Company further agreed to include a new covenant requiring the Company to maintain unrestricted, unencumbered cash in an amount equal to at least 50% of the principal amount then outstanding under the Hercules Loan Facility and borrow an additional $5.0 million. The additional $5.0 million borrowing was completed in June 2014, and accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of either the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 5.25% or 8.5%. The Hercules Loan Facility is secured by liens on the Company's assets, including on certain Company intellectual property. The Hercules Loan Facility includes customary events of default, including failure to pay amounts due, breaches of covenants and warranties, material adverse effect events, certain cross defaults and judgments, and insolvency. If an event of default occurs, Hercules may require immediate repayment of all amounts due.

 
18

 
In March 2015, the Company and Hercules entered into a second amendment (or the “Second Hercules Amendment”) of the Hercules Loan Facility. Pursuant to the Second Hercules Amendment, the parties agreed to, among other things, establish an additional credit facility in the principal amount of up to $15.0 million, which would be available to be drawn by the Company at its sole election (in increments of $5.0 million) through the earlier of March 31, 2016 or such time as the Company raises an aggregate of at least $20.0 million through the sale of new equity securities, subject to certain conditions, including the receipt of third party consents and a requirement to first make certain draw-downs under an equity line of credit that the Company previously secured (to the extent the Company is permitted to do so under the terms thereof). Commencing with the quarter in which the Company borrows any amounts under this additional facility, the Company becomes subject to a covenant to achieve certain amounts of product revenues. Under the terms of the Second Hercules Amendment, the Company agreed to pay Hercules a 3.0% facility availability fee on April 1, 2015. If the facility is not canceled, and any outstanding borrowings are not repaid, before June 30, 2015, an additional 5.0% facility fee becomes payable on June 30, 2015. The Company has the ability to cancel the additional facility at any time prior to June 30, 2015 at its own option, and the additional facility would terminate upon the Company securing a new equity financing of at least $20.0 million. Any amounts drawn under the Second Hercules Amendment would accrue interest at a rate per annum equal to the greater of either the prime rate reported in the Wall Street Journal plus 6.25% or 9.5% and would be payable on a monthly basis. Additionally, the Company would be required to pay an end of term charge of 10.0% of any amounts drawn under the facility. Any amounts drawn under the Second Hercules Amendment would be secured by the same liens provided for in the original Hercules Agreement and the First Hercules Amendment, including a lien on certain Company intellectual property.

 As of March 31, 2015, $29.8 million was outstanding under the Hercules Loan Facility, net of discount of $0.2 million, and the Company maintains cash in excess of the approximately $15.0 million current minimum cash covenant described above.

Convertible Notes

Fidelity

In February 2012, the Company completed the sale of senior unsecured convertible promissory notes in an aggregate principal amount of $25.0 million pursuant to a securities purchase agreement, between the Company and certain investment funds affiliated with FMR LLC (or the "Fidelity Securities Purchase Agreement"). The offering consisted of the sale of 3% senior unsecured convertible promissory notes with a March 1, 2017 maturity date and an initial conversion price equal to $7.0682 per share of the Company's common stock, subject to proportional adjustment for adjustments to outstanding common stock and anti-dilution provisions in case of dividends and distributions (or the "Fidelity Notes"). As of March 31, 2015, the Fidelity Notes were convertible into an aggregate of up to 3,536,968 shares of the Company's common stock. Such note holders have a right to require repayment of 101% of the principal amount of the Fidelity Notes in an acquisition of the Company, and the notes provide for payment of unpaid interest on conversion following such an acquisition if the note holders do not require such repayment. The Fidelity Securities Purchase Agreement and Fidelity Notes include covenants regarding payment of interest, maintaining the Company's listing status, limitations on debt, maintenance of corporate existence, and filing of SEC reports. The Fidelity Notes include standard events of default resulting in acceleration of indebtedness, including failure to pay, bankruptcy and insolvency, cross-defaults, material adverse effect clauses and breaches of the covenants in the Fidelity Securities Purchase Agreement and Fidelity Notes, with default interest rates and associated cure periods applicable to the covenant regarding SEC reporting. Furthermore, the Fidelity Notes include restrictions on the amount of debt the Company is permitted to incur. With exceptions for certain existing debt, refinancing of such debt and certain other exclusions and waivers, the Fidelity Notes provide that the Company's total outstanding debt at any time cannot exceed the greater of $200.0 million or 50% of its consolidated total assets and its secured debt cannot exceed the greater of $125.0 million or 30% of its consolidated total assets. In connection with the Company’s closing of a short-term bridge loan for $35.0 million in October 2013, holders of the Fidelity Notes waived compliance with the debt limitations outlined above as to the $35.0 million bridge loan (or the “Temasek Bridge Note”) and the August 2013 Financing (defined below). In consideration for such waiver, the Company granted to holders of the Fidelity Notes or their affiliates, the right to purchase up to an aggregate of $7.6 million worth of convertible promissory notes in the first tranche of the August 2013 Financing.

Pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreement among the Company, Maxwell (Mauritius) Pte Ltd (or “Temasek”) and Total, dated as of August 8, 2013 (or the “August 2013 SPA”), as amended in October 2013 to include certain entities affiliated with FMR LLC (or the “Fidelity Entities”) the Company sold and issued certain senior convertible promissory notes  (or the "Tranche I Notes") pursuant to a financing (or the “August 2013 Financing”) exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the "Securities Act") with an aggregate principal amount of $7.6 million of Tranche I Notes sold to the Fidelity Entities. See "Related Party Convertible Notes" in Note 5, "Debt."

 
19

 
Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering

In May 2014, the Company entered into a Purchase Agreement with Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, as the initial purchaser (or the “Initial Purchaser”), relating to the sale of $75.0 million aggregate in principal amount of its 6.50% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (or the "144A Notes") to the Initial Purchaser in a private placement, and for initial resale by the Initial Purchaser to certain qualified institutional buyers (or the "Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering"). In addition, the Company granted the Initial Purchaser an option to purchase up to an additional $15.0 million aggregate principal amount of 144A Notes, which option expired according to its terms. Under the terms of the purchase agreement for the 144A Notes, the Company agreed to customary indemnification of the Initial Purchaser against certain liabilities. The Notes were issued pursuant to an Indenture, dated as of May 29, 2014 (or the “Indenture”), between the Company and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee. The net proceeds from the offering of the 144A Notes were approximately $72.0 million after payment of the Initial Purchaser’s discounts and offering expenses. In addition, in connection with obtaining a waiver from Total of its preexisting contractual right to exchange certain senior secured convertible notes previously issued by the Company for new notes issued in the offering, the Company used approximately $9.7 million of the net proceeds to repay previously issued notes (representing the amount of 144A Notes purchased by Total from the Initial Purchaser). Certain of the Company's affiliated entities purchased $24.7 million in aggregate principal amount of 144A Notes from the Initial Purchaser (described further below under "Related Party Convertible Notes"). The 144A Notes will bear interest at a rate of 6.50% per year, payable semiannually in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year, beginning November 15, 2014. The 144A Notes will mature on May 15, 2019 unless earlier converted or repurchased. The 144A Notes are convertible into shares of the Company's common stock at any time prior to the close of business day on May 15, 2019. The 144A Notes have an initial conversion rate of 267.0370 shares of Common Stock per $1,000 principal amount of 144A Notes (subject to adjustment in certain circumstances). This represents an initial effective conversion price of approximately $3.74 per share of common stock. For any conversion on or after May 15, 2015, in the event that the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock for 20 or more trading days (whether or not consecutive) in a period of 30 consecutive trading days ending within five trading days immediately prior to the date the Company receives a notice of conversion exceeds the conversion price of $3.74 per share on each such trading day, the holders, in addition to the shares deliverable upon conversion, will be entitled to receive a cash payment equal to the present value of the remaining scheduled payments of interest that would have been made on the 144A Notes being converted from the conversion date to the earlier of the date that is three years after the date the Company receives such notice of conversion and maturity (May 15, 2019). In the event of a fundamental change, as defined in the Indenture, holders of the 144A Notes may require the Company to purchase all or a portion of the 144A Notes at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 144A Notes, plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. Holders of the 144A Notes who convert their 144A Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change will receive additional shares representing the present value of the remaining interest payments which will be computed using a discount rate of 0.75%. If a holder of 144A Notes elects to convert their 144A Notes prior to the effective date of any make-whole fundamental change, such holder will not be entitled to an increased conversion rate in connection with such conversion.

As of March 31, 2015, the convertible 144A Notes outstanding were $31.2 million, net of discount of $19.1 million.

Related Party Convertible Notes

Total R&D Convertible Notes

In July 2012, the Company entered into an agreement with Total that expanded Total's investment in its Biofene collaboration with the Company, provided new structure for a joint venture (or the "Fuels JV") to commercialize the products encompassed by the diesel and jet fuel research and development program (or the "Program"), and established a convertible debt structure for the collaboration funding from Total (or the "July 2012 Agreements").

 
20

 
The purchase agreement for the notes related to the funding from Total (or the “Total Purchase Agreement”) provided for the sale of the Total Notes consisting of an aggregate of $105.0 million in 1.5% Senior Unsecured Convertible Note due March 2017 as follows:

 
As part of an initial closing under the Total Purchase Agreement (which was completed in two installments), (i) on July 30, 2012, the Company sold a Total Note with a principal amount of $38.3 million, including $15.0 million in new funds and $23.3 million in previously-provided diesel research and development funding by Total, and (ii) on September 14, 2012, the Company sold another Total Note for $15.0 million in new funds from Total.
 
 
At a second closing under the Total Purchase Agreement (also completed in two installments) the Company sold additional Total Notes for an aggregate of $30.0 million in new funds from Total ($10.0 million in June 2013 and $20.0 million in July 2013).
 
 
At a third closing under the Total Purchase Agreement (also completed in two installments) the Company sold additional Total Notes for an aggregate of $21.7 million in new funds from Total ($10.85 million in July 2014 and $10.85 million in January 2015) (or the “Third Closing Notes”).
 
The Total Notes have a maturity date of March 1, 2017, an initial conversion price equal to $7.0682 per share for the Total Notes issued under the initial closing, an initial conversion price equal to $3.08 per share for the Total Notes issued under the second closing and an initial conversion price equal to $4.11 per share for the Third Closing Notes. The Total Notes bear interest of 1.5% per annum (with a default rate of 2.5%), accruing from the date of funding and payable at maturity or on conversion or a change of control where Total exercises the right to require the Company to repay the notes.  Accrued interest is partially or fully cancelled if the Total Notes are cancelled based on a final decision by Total to go forward with the fuels collaboration (either partially with respect to jet fuel or fully with respect to jet fuel and diesel (a “Go” decision) (see Note 8, "Significant Agreements"). The agreements contemplate that the research and development efforts under the Program may extend through 2016, with a series of “Go/No Go” decisions (see Note 8, "Significant Agreements") by Total through such date tied to funding by Total.

The Total Notes become convertible into the Company's common stock (i) within 10 trading days prior to maturity (if they are not cancelled as described above prior to their maturity date), (ii) on a change of control of the Company, (iii) if Total is no longer the largest stockholder of the Company following a “No-Go” decision (subject to a six-month lock-up with respect to any shares of common stock issued upon conversion), and (iv) on a default by the Company. If Total makes a final “Go” decision with respect to the full fuels collaboration, then the Total Notes will be exchanged by Total for equity interests in the Fuels JV, after which the Total Notes will not be convertible and any obligation to pay principal or interest on the Total Notes will be extinguished. In case of a “Go” decision only with respect to jet fuel, the parties would form an operational joint venture only for jet fuel (and the rights associated with diesel would terminate), 70% of the outstanding Total Notes would remain outstanding and become payable by the Company, and 30% of the outstanding Total Notes would be cancelled. If Total makes a “No-Go” decision, outstanding Total Notes will remain outstanding and become payable at maturity.

In connection with the December 2012 private placement of the Company’s common stock involving certain existing stockholders of the Company (see Note 10, "Stockholders' Equity"), Total elected to participate in the private placement by exchanging approximately $5.0 million of its $53.3 million in Total Notes issued in the initial closing into 1,677,852 of the Company's common stock at a price of $2.98 per share. As such, $5.0 million of Total's outstanding $53.3 million in Total Notes issued in the initial closing was cancelled. The cancellation of the debt was treated as an extinguishment of debt in accordance with the guidance outlined in ASC 470-50. As a result of the exchange and cancellation of the $5.0 million debt the Company recorded a loss from extinguishment of debt of $0.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2012.

In March 2013, the Company entered into a letter agreement with Total (or the “March 2013 Letter Agreement”) under which Total agreed to waive its right to cease its participation in the parties' fuels collaboration at the July 2013 decision point and committed to proceed with the second closing under the Total Purchase Agreement (subject to the Company's satisfaction of the relevant closing conditions for such funding in the Total Purchase Agreement). As consideration for this waiver and commitment, the Company agreed to:

 
reduce the conversion price for the $30.0 million in principal amount of Total Notes to be issued in connection with the second closing of the Total Notes (as described above) from $7.0682 per share to a price per share equal to the greater of (i) the consolidated closing bid price of the Company's common stock on the date of the March 2013 Letter Agreement, plus $0.01, and (ii) $3.08 per share, provided that the conversion price would not be reduced by more than the maximum possible amount permitted under the rules of The NASDAQ Stock Market (or “NASDAQ”) such that the new conversion price would require the Company to obtain stockholder consent; and
 
 
grant Total a senior security interest in the Company's intellectual property, subject to certain exclusions and subject to release by Total when the Company and Total enter into final documentation regarding the establishment of the Fuels JV.

In addition to the waiver by Total described above, Total also agreed that, at the Company's request and contingent upon the Company meeting its obligations described above, it would pay advance installments of the amounts otherwise payable at the second closing.

In June 2013, the Company sold and issued $10.0 million in principal amount of Total Notes to Total pursuant to the second closing of the Total Notes as discussed above. In accordance with the March 2013 Letter Agreement, this Total Note has an initial conversion price equal to $3.08 per share of the Company's common stock.

In July 2013, the Company sold and issued $20.0 million in principal amount of Total Notes to Total pursuant to the second closing of the Total Notes as discussed above. This purchase and sale completed Total's commitment to purchase $30.0 million of the Total Notes in the second closing by July 2013. In accordance with the March 2013 Letter Agreement, this Total Note has an initial conversion price equal to $3.08 per share of the Company's common stock.

 
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The conversion prices of the Total Notes are subject to adjustment for proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock and under anti-dilution provisions in case of certain dividends and distributions. Total has a right to require repayment of 101% of the principal amount of the Total Notes in the event of a change of control of the Company and the Total Notes provide for payment of unpaid interest on conversion following such a change of control if Total does not require such repayment. The Total Purchase Agreement and Total Notes include covenants regarding payment of interest, maintenance of the Company's listing status, limitations on debt, maintenance of corporate existence, and filing of SEC reports. The Total Notes include standard events of default resulting in acceleration of indebtedness, including failure to pay, bankruptcy and insolvency, cross-defaults, and breaches of the covenants in the Total Purchase Agreement and Total Notes, with added default interest rates and associated cure periods applicable to the covenant regarding SEC reporting. Furthermore, the Total Notes include restrictions on the amount of debt the Company is permitted to incur. With exceptions for certain existing debt, refinancing of such debt and certain other exclusions and waivers, the Total Notes provide that the Company's total outstanding debt at any time cannot exceed the greater of $200.0 million or 50% of its consolidated total assets and its secured debt cannot exceed the greater of $125.0 million or 30% of its consolidated total assets. In connection with the Company’s closing of the Temasek Bridge Note for $35.0 million and the August 2013 Financing and in connection with the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering in May 2014, Total waived compliance with the debt limitations outlined above as to the Temasek Bridge Note, the August 2013 Financing and the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering.

In December 2013, in connection with the Company's entry into a Shareholders Agreement dated December 2, 3013 and License Agreement dated December 2, 2013 (or, collectively,  the “JV Documents”) with Total and Total Amyris BioSolutions B.V. (or “JVCO”) relating to the establishment of JVCO (see Note 7, "Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest"), the Company (i) exchanged the $69.0 million of the then-outstanding Total Notes issued pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement for replacement 1.5% senior secured convertible notes, in principal amounts equal to the principal amount of each cancelled note (or the “Replacement Notes”), ii) granted to Total a security interest in and lien on all Amyris’ rights, title and interest in and to Company’s shares in the capital of JVCO and (iii) agreed that any securities to be purchased and sold at the third closing under the Total Purchase Agreement by Total shall be Replacement Notes instead of Total Notes. As a consequence of executing the JV Documents and forming JVCO, the security interest in all of the Company's intellectual property, granted by the Company in favor of Total, Temasek, and certain Fidelity Entities pursuant to the Restated Intellectual Property Security Agreement dated as of October 16, 2013, were automatically terminated effective as of December 2, 2013 upon Total’s and the Company’s joint written notice to Temasek and the Fidelity Entities.

In April 2014, the Company and Total entered into a letter agreement dated as of March 29, 2014 (or the “March 2014 Total Letter Agreement”) to amend the Amended and Restated Master Framework Agreement entered into as of December 2, 2013 (included as part of JV Documents) and the Total Purchase Agreement. Under the March 2014 Total Letter Agreement, the Company agreed to, (i) amend the conversion price of the Replacement Notes to be issued in the third closing under the Total Purchase Agreement from $7.0682 per share to $4.11 per share subject to stockholder approval at the Company's 2014 annual meeting (which was obtained in May 2014), (ii) extend the period during which Total may exchange for other Company securities Replacement Notes issued under the July 2012 Agreements from June 30, 2014 to the later of December 31, 2014 and the date on which the Company shall have raised $75.0 million of equity and/or convertible debt financing (excluding any convertible promissory notes issued pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement), (iii) eliminate the Company’s ability to qualify, in a disclosure letter to Total, certain of the representations and warranties that the Company must make at the closing of any third closing sale, and (iv) beginning on March 31, 2014, provide Total with monthly reporting on the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments. In consideration of these agreements, Total agreed to waive its right not to consummate the closing of the issuance of the Third Closing Notes if it had decided not to proceed with the collaboration and had made a "No-Go" decision with respect thereto.

In July 2014, the Company sold and issued a Replacement Note to Total with a principal amount of $10.85 million with a March 1, 2017 maturity date pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement. This purchase and sale constituted the initial installment of the $21.7 million third closing described above. In accordance with the March 2014 Total Letter Agreement, this convertible note has an initial conversion price equal to $4.11 per share of the Company's common stock.

In January 2015, the Company sold and issued a Replacement Note to Total with a principal amount of $10.85 million with a March 1, 2017 maturity date pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement. This purchase and sale constituted the final installment of the $21.7 million third closing described above. In accordance with the March 2014 Total Letter Agreement, this convertible note has an initial conversion price equal to $4.11 per share of the Company's common stock.
 
As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, $63.0 million and $51.0 million, respectively, of Replacement Notes were outstanding, net of debt discount of $12.0 million and $13.1 million, respectively.

 
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August 2013 Financing Convertible Notes and 2013 Bridge Note

In connection with the August 2013 Financing, the Company entered into the August 2013 SPA with Total and Temasek to sell up to $73.0 million in convertible promissory notes in private placements, with such notes to be sold and issued over a period of up to 24 months from the date of signing. The August 2013 SPA provided for the August 2013 Financing to be divided into two tranches (the first tranche for $42.6 million and the second tranche for $30.4 million), each with differing closing conditions. Of the total possible purchase price in the financing, $60.0 million was paid in the form of cash by Temasek ($35.0 million in the first tranche and up to $25.0 million in the second tranche) and $13.0 million was paid by the exchange and cancellation of outstanding convertible promissory notes held by Total in connection with its exercise of pro rata rights ($7.6 million in the first tranche and $5.4 million in the second tranche). The August 2013 SPA included requirements that the Company meet certain production milestones before the second tranche would become available, obtain stockholder approval prior to completing any closing of the transaction, and issue a warrant to Temasek to purchase 1,000,000 shares of the Company's common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share, exercisable only if Total converts notes previously issued to Total in the second closing under the Total Purchase Agreement. In September 2013, prior to the initial closing of the August 2013 Financing, the Company's stockholders approved the issuance in the private placement of up to $110.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior convertible promissory notes, the issuance of a warrant to purchase 1,000,000 shares of the Company's common stock and the issuance of the common stock issuable upon conversion or exercise of such notes and warrant, which approval included the transactions contemplated by the August 2013 Financing.

In October 2013, the Company sold and issued the Temasek Bridge Note in exchange for a bridge loan of $35.0 million. The Temasek Bridge Note was due on February 2, 2014 and accrued interest at a rate of 5.5% quarterly from the October 4, 2013 date of issuance. The Temasek Bridge Note was cancelled on October 16, 2013 as payment for Temasek’s purchase of Tranche I Notes in the first tranche of the August 2013 Financing as further described below.

In October 2013, the Company amended the August 2013 SPA to include certain Fidelity Entities in the first tranche of the August 2013 Financing with an investment amount of $7.6 million, and to proportionally increase the amount acquired by exchange and cancellation of outstanding Total Notes in connection with its exercise of pro rata rights up to $14.6 million ($9.2 million in the first tranche and up to $5.4 million in the second tranche). Also in October 2013, the Company completed the closing of the first tranche of the August 2013 Financing, issuing a total of $51.8 million in Tranche I Notes for cash proceeds of $7.6 million and cancellation of outstanding convertible promissory notes of $44.2 million, of which $35.0 million resulted from cancellation of the Temasek Bridge Note and the remaining $9.2 million from the exchange and cancellation of an outstanding Total Note. As a result of the exchange and cancellation of the $35.0 million Temasek Bridge Note and the $9.2 million Total Note for the Tranche I Notes, the Company recorded a loss from extinguishment of debt of $19.9 million. The Tranche I Notes are due sixty months from the date of issuance and will be convertible into the Company’s common stock at a conversion price equal to $2.44, which represents a 15% discount to a trailing 60-day weighted-average closing price of the common stock on NASDAQ through August 7, 2013, subject to adjustment as described below. The Tranche I Notes are convertible at the option of the holder: (i) at any time after 18 months from the date of the August 2013 SPA, (ii) on a change of control of the Company and (iii) upon the occurrence of an event of default. The conversion price of the Tranche I Notes will be reduced to $2.15 if (a) (i) a specified Company manufacturing plant failed to achieve a total production of 1.0 million liters within a run period of 45 days prior to June 30, 2014, or (ii) the Company fails to achieve gross margins from product sales of at least 5% prior to June 30, 2014, or (b) the Company reduces the conversion price of certain existing promissory notes held by Total prior to the repayment or conversion of the Tranche I Notes. In 2013, the Company achieved a total production of 1.0 million liters within a run period of 45 days in satisfaction of clause (a)(i) of the preceding sentence and the Company achieved clause (a)(ii) by achieving greater than 5% gross margins from product sales prior to June 30, 2014. Each Tranche I Note accrues interest from the date of issuance until the earlier of the date that such Tranche I Note is converted into the Company’s common stock or is repaid in full. Interest accrues at a rate of 5% per six months, compounded semiannually (with graduated interest rates of 6.5% applicable to the first 180 days and 8% applicable thereafter as the sole remedy should the Company fail to maintain NASDAQ listing status or at 6.5% for all other defaults). Interest for the first 30 months is payable in kind and added to the principal every six-months and thereafter, the Company may continue to pay interest in kind by adding to the principal every six-months or may elect to pay interest in cash. The Tranche I Notes may be prepaid by the Company after 30 months from the issuance date and initial interest payment; thereafter the Company has the option to prepay the Tranche I Notes every six months at the date of payment of the semi-annual coupon.

In January 2014, the Company sold and issued, for face value, approximately $34.0 million of convertible promissory notes in the second tranche of the August 2013 Financing (or the “Tranche II Notes”). At the closing, Temasek purchased $25.0 million of the Tranche II Notes and Wolverine Asset Management, LLC (or “Wolverine”) purchased $3.0 million of the Tranche II Notes, each for cash. Total purchased approximately $6.0 million of the Tranche II Notes through cancellation of the same amount of principal of previously outstanding Replacement Notes held by Total. As a result of the exchange and cancellation of the $6.0 million Total Note for the Tranche II Notes, the Company recorded a loss from extinguishment of debt of $9.4 million. The Tranche II Notes will be due sixty months from the date of issuance and will be convertible into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to $2.87 per share, which represents a trailing 60-day weighted-average closing price of the common stock on NASDAQ through August 7, 2013, subject to adjustment as described below. Specifically, the Tranche II Notes are convertible at the option of the holder (i) at any time 12 months after issuance, (ii) on a change of control of the Company, and (iii) upon the occurrence of an event of default. Each Tranche II Note will accrue interest from the date of issuance until the earlier of the date that such Tranche II Note is converted into common stock or repaid in full. Interest will accrue at a rate per annum equal to 10%, compounded annually (with graduated interest rates of 13% applicable to the first 180 days and 16% applicable thereafter as the sole remedy should the Company fail to maintain NASDAQ listing status or at 12% for all other defaults). Interest for the first 36 months shall be payable in kind and added to principal every year following the issue date and thereafter, the Company may continue to pay interest in kind by adding to principal on every year anniversary of the issue date or may elect to pay interest in cash.

 
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In addition to the conversion price adjustments set forth above, the conversion prices of the Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes are subject to further adjustment (i) according to proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock of the Company in case of certain dividends and distributions, (ii) according to anti-dilution provisions, and (iii) with respect to notes held by any purchaser other than Total, in the event that Total exchanges existing convertible notes for new securities of the Company in connection with future financing transactions in excess of its pro rata amount. Notwithstanding the foregoing, holders of a majority of the principal amount of the notes outstanding at the time of conversion may waive any anti-dilution adjustments to the conversion price. The purchasers have a right to require repayment of 101% of the principal amount of the notes in the event of a change of control of the Company and the notes provide for payment of unpaid interest on conversion following such a change of control if the purchasers do not require such repayment. The August 2013 SPA, Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes include covenants regarding payment of interest, maintenance of the Company’s listing status, limitations on debt and on certain liens, maintenance of corporate existence, and filing of SEC reports. The notes include standard events of default resulting in acceleration of indebtedness, including failure to pay, bankruptcy and insolvency, cross-defaults, and breaches of the covenants in the August 2013 SPA, Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes, with default interest rates and associated cure periods applicable to the covenant.

As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the related party convertible notes outstanding under the Tranche I and Tranche II Notes were $52.7 million and $49.2 million, respectively, net of debt discount of $30.5 million and $30.7 million, respectively. The debt discount is the result of the bifurcation of the conversion options that contain "make-whole" provisions or down round conversion price adjustment provisions associated with the outstanding debt.

Rule 144A Convertible Notes Sold to Related Parties

As discussed above under “Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering”, the Company sold and issued $75.0 million aggregate principal amount of 144A Notes pursuant to Rule 144A of the Securities Act. In connection with obtaining a waiver from one of its existing investors, Total, of its preexisting contractual right to exchange certain senior secured convertible notes previously issued by Amyris pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement for 144A Notes issued in the transaction, Amyris used approximately $9.7 million of the net proceeds to repay such amount of previously issued Replacement Notes held by Total, which represented the amount of 144A Notes purchased by Total from the Initial Purchaser under the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering.  As a result of the settlement of the $9.7 million of Replacement Notes, the Company recorded a loss from extinguishment of $1.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2014.

Additionally, Foris Ventures, LLC (a fund affiliated with John Doerr) and Temasek each participated in the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering and purchased $5.0 million and $10.0 million, respectively, of the convertible promissory notes sold thereunder.
 
As of March 31, 2015 the related party convertible notes outstanding under the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering were $15.3 million, net of discount of $9.4 million.

 As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the total related party convertible notes outstanding were $131.1 million and $115.2 million, respectively, net of discount of $51.9 million and $53.8 million, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company recorded a loss from extinguishment of debt from the exchange and cancellation of related party convertible notes of zero and $9.4 million, respectively.

Loans Payable

In July 2012, the Company entered into a Note of Bank Credit and a Fiduciary Conveyance of Movable Goods Agreement (together, the "July 2012 Bank Agreements") with each of Nossa Caixa Desenvolvimento (or “Nossa Caixa”) and Banco Pine S.A. (or “Banco Pine”). Under the July 2012 Bank Agreements, the Company pledged certain farnesene production assets as collateral for the loans of R$52.0 million. The Company's total acquisition cost for such pledged assets was approximately R$68.0 million (approximately US$21.2 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). The Company is also a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under these loan agreements. Under the July 2012 Bank Agreements, the Company could borrow an aggregate of R$52.0 million (approximately US$16.2 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) as financing for capital expenditures relating to the Company's manufacturing facility located in Brotas, Brazil. Specifically, Banco Pine, agreed to lend R$22.0 million and Nossa Caixa agreed to lend R$30.0 million. The funds for the loans are provided by BNDES, but are guaranteed by the lenders. The loans have a final maturity date of July 15, 2022 and bear a fixed interest rate of 5.5% per year. The loans are also subject to early maturity and delinquency charges upon occurrence of certain events including interruption of manufacturing activities at the Company's manufacturing facility in Brotas, Brazil for more than 30 days, except during the sugarcane off-season. For the first two years that the loans are outstanding, the Company is required to pay interest only on a quarterly basis. Since August 15, 2014, the Company has been required to pay equal monthly installments of both principal and interest for the remainder of the term of the loans. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, a principal amount of $14.9 million and $18.6 million, respectively, was outstanding under these loan agreements.

 
24

 
In March 2013, the Company entered into an export financing agreement with Banco ABC Brasil S.A. (or “ABC”) for approximately $2.5 million to fund exports through March 2014. This loan was collateralized by future exports from the Company's subsidiary in Brazil. In March 2014, the Company entered into an additional export financing agreement with ABC for approximately $2.2 million to fund exports through March 2015. This loan is collateralized by future exports from the Company's subsidiary in Brazil. As of March 31, 2015, the principal amount outstanding under this agreement was zero. The Company is also a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under these loan agreements. 

In October 2013, the Company entered into a financing arrangement with a third party for the monthly payments of its insurance premiums of $0.6 million payable in nine monthly installments of principal and interest. Interest accrues at a rate of 3.24% per annum. The installment payments were concluded in 2014. In October 2014, the Company agreed to a new installment plan amounting to $0.6 million to pay for the current insurance premiums under the same terms. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the outstanding unpaid installment payments were $0.1 million and $0.3 million, respectively.

Letters of Credit

In June 2012, the Company entered into a letter of credit agreement for $1.0 million under which it provided a letter of credit to the landlord of its headquarters in Emeryville, California, in order to cover the security deposit on the lease. This letter of credit is secured by a certificate of deposit. Accordingly, the Company has $1.0 million as restricted cash as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

Future minimum payments under the debt agreements as of March 31, 2015 are as follows (in thousands):
 
Years ending December 31:
 
Related Party
Convertible Debt
   
Convertible
Debt
   
Loans
Payable
   
Credit
Facility
   
Total
 
2015 (remaining nine months)
  $ 1,610     $ 3,645     $ 2,434     $ 13,470     $ 21,159  
2016
    1,606       4,020       2,702       19,538       27,866  
2017
    81,321       28,715       2,590       7,124       119,750  
2018
    74,485       15,685       2,480       324       92,974  
2019
    75,825       56,798       2,370       88       135,081  
Thereafter
                5,613             5,613  
Total future minimum payments
    234,847       108,863       18,189       40,544       402,443  
Less: amount representing interest (1)
    (103,718 )     (47,068 )     (2,997 )     (6,206 )     (159,989 )
Present value of minimum debt payments
    131,129       61,795       15,192       34,338       242,454  
Less: current portion
                (2,360 )     (15,833 )     (18,193 )
Noncurrent portion of debt
  $ 131,129     $ 61,795     $ 12,832     $ 18,505     $ 224,261  
______________
(1)
Including debt discount of $77.2 million related to the embedded derivatives associated with the related party and non-related party convertible debt which will be accreted to interest expense under the effective interest method over the term of the convertible debt.

6. Commitments and Contingencies

Lease Obligations

The Company leases certain facilities and finances certain equipment under operating and capital leases, respectively. Operating leases include leased facilities and capital leases include leased equipment (see Note 4, "Balance Sheet Components"). The Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the non-cancellable lease term and records the difference between rent payments and the recognition of rent expense as a deferred rent liability. Where leases contain escalation clauses, rent abatements, and/or concessions, such as rent holidays and landlord or tenant incentives or allowances, the Company applies them as a straight-line rent expense over the lease term. The Company has non-cancellable operating lease agreements for office, research and development, and manufacturing space that expire at various dates, with the latest expiration in February 2031. Rent expense under operating leases was $1.3 million and $1.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
 
 
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Future minimum payments under the Company's lease obligations as of March 31, 2015, are as follows (in thousands):
 
Years ending December 31:
 
Capital
Leases
   
Operating
Leases
   
Total Lease
Obligations
 
2015 (remaining nine months)
  $ 237     $ 5,508     $ 5,745  
2016
    301       6,687       6,988  
2017
    44       6,693       6,737  
2018
          6,744       6,744  
2019
          6,771       6,771  
Thereafter
          25,193       25,193  
Total future minimum lease payments
    582     $ 57,596     $ 58,178  
Less: amount representing interest
    (51 )                
Present value of minimum lease payments
    531                  
Less: current portion
    (277 )                
Long-term portion
  $ 254                  

Guarantor Arrangements

The Company has agreements whereby it indemnifies its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or directors are serving in their official capacities. The indemnification period remains enforceable for the officer's or director’s lifetime. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is unlimited; however, the Company has a director and officer insurance policy that limits its exposure and enables the Company to recover a portion of any future payments. As a result of its insurance policy coverage, the Company believes the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements is minimal.  Accordingly, the Company had no liabilities recorded for these agreements as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.
 
The Company entered into the FINEP Credit Facility to finance a research and development project on sugarcane-based biodiesel (see Note 5, "Debt"). The FINEP Credit Facility is guaranteed by a chattel mortgage on certain equipment of the Company. The Company's total acquisition cost for the equipment under this guarantee is approximately R$6.0 million (approximately US$1.9 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015).

The Company entered into the BNDES Credit Facility to finance a production site in Brazil (see Note 5, "Debt").The BNDES Credit Facility is collateralized by a first priority security interest in certain of the Company's equipment and other tangible assets with a total acquisition cost of R$24.9 million (approximately US$7.8 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). The Company is a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under the BNDES Credit Facility. Additionally, the Company is required to provide certain bank guarantees under the BNDES Credit Facility. Accordingly, the Company has $0.6 million as restricted cash as of both March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

The Company entered into loan agreements and security agreements whereby the Company pledged certain farnesene production assets as collateral (the fiduciary conveyance of movable goods) with each of Nossa Caixa and Banco Pine (see Note 5, "Debt"). The Company's total acquisition cost for the farnesene production assets pledged as collateral under these agreements is approximately R$68.0 million (approximately US$21.2 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). The Company is also a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under these loan agreements. 

The Company had an export financing agreement with ABC for approximately $2.5 million for a one year term to fund exports through March 2014. As of March 31, 2015, the loan was fully repaid. On April 8, 2015, the Company entered into another export financing agreement with the same bank for approximately $2.2 million for a one year term to fund exports through March 2016. This loan is collateralized by future exports from Amyris Brasil. The Company is also a parent guarantor for the payment of the outstanding balance under these loan agreements. 
 
 
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In October 2013, the Company entered into a letter agreement with Total relating to the Temasek Bridge Note and to the closing of the August 2013 Financing (or the "Amendment Agreement") (see Note 5, "Debt"). In the August 2013 Financing, the Company was required to provide the purchasers under the August 2013 SPA with a security interest in the Company’s intellectual property if Total still held such security interest as of the initial closing of the August 2013 Financing. Under the terms of a previous Intellectual Property Security Agreement by and between the Company and Total (or the "Security Agreement"), the Company had previously granted a security interest in favor of Total to secure the obligations of the Company under the Total Notes issued and issuable to Total under the Total Purchase Agreement. The Security Agreement provided that such security interest would terminate if Total and the Company entered into certain agreements relating to the formation of the Fuels JV. In connection with Total’s agreement to (i) permit the Company to grant the security interest under the Temasek Bridge Note and the August 2013 Financing and (ii) waive a secured debt limitation contained in the outstanding Total Notes issued pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement and held by Total, the Company entered into the Amendment Agreement. Under the Amendment Agreement, the Company agreed to reduce, effective December 2, 2013, the conversion price for the Total Notes issued in 2012 (approximately $48.3 million of which are outstanding as of the date hereof) from $7.0682 per share to $2.20, the market price per share of the Company’s common stock as of the signing of the Amendment Agreement, as determined in accordance with applicable NASDAQ rules, unless the Company and Total entered into the JV Documents on or prior to December 2, 2013. The Company and Total entered into the JV agreements on December 2, 2013 and the Amendment Agreement and all security interests thereunder were automatically terminated and the conversion price of such Total Notes remained at $7.0682 per share.

In December 2013, in connection with the execution of JV Documents entered into by and among Amyris, Total and JVCO relating to the establishment of the JVCO (see Note 5, "Debt" and Note 7, "Joint Venture and Noncontrolling Interest"), the Company agreed to exchange the $69.0 million outstanding Total Notesissued pursuant to the Total Purchase Agreement and issue replacement 1.5% senior secured convertible notes, in principal amounts equal to the principal amount of each Total Note and grant a security interest to Total in and lien on all the Company’s rights, title and interest in and to the Company’s shares in the capital of the JVCO. Following execution of the JV Documents, all Total Notes that have been issued became Replacement Notes. Further, the $10.85 million in principal amount of such notes issued in the initial tranche of the third closing under the Total Purchase Agreement in July 2014 and the $10.85 million in principal amount of such notes issued in the second tranche of the third closing are secured Replacement Notes instead of unsecured Total Notes.

The Hercules Loan Facility (see Note 5, "Debt") is collateralized by liens on the Company's assets, including certain Company intellectual property.

Purchase Obligations

As of March 31, 2015, the Company had $2.4 million in purchase obligations which included $1.3 million in non-cancellable contractual obligations and construction commitments, of which zero have been accrued as loss on purchase commitments.

Other Matters

Certain conditions may exist as of the date the financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to the Company but will only be recorded when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. The Company's management assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against and by the Company or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, the Company's management evaluates the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought.

If the assessment of a contingency indicates that it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in the Company's financial statements. If the assessment indicates that a potential material loss contingency is not probable but is reasonably possible, or is probable but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss if determinable and material would be disclosed. Loss contingencies considered to be remote by management are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantee would be disclosed.

In May 2013, a securities class action complaint was filed against the Company and its CEO, John G. Melo, in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. In October 2013, the lead plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint. The complaint, as amended, sought unspecified damages on behalf of a purported class that would comprise all individuals who acquired the Company's common stock between April 29, 2011 and February 8, 2012. The complaint alleged securities law violations based on the Company's commercial projections during that period. In December 2013, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the complaint. In March 2014, the court issued an order granting the Company's motion to dismiss with leave to amend the complaint. The plaintiffs declined to amend their complaint further and, on June 12, 2014, the court issued an order (based on stipulation of the parties) dismissing the action with prejudice.

 
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In August 2013, a complaint entitled Steve Shannon, derivatively on behalf of Amyris, Inc. v. John G. Melo et al and Amyris, Inc., was filed against the Company as nominal defendant in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. The lawsuit sought unspecified damages on behalf of the Company from certain of its current and former officers, directors and employees and alleges these defendants breached their fiduciary duties to the Company and unjustly enriched themselves by making allegedly false and misleading statements and omitting certain material facts in the Company's securities filings. Because this purported stockholder derivative action is based on substantially the same facts as the securities class action described above, the two actions were related and were heard by the same judge. On June 23, 2014, following the dismissal of the related class action (discussed above), the court issued an order (based on stipulation of the parties) dismissing the action with prejudice.

The Company is subject to disputes and claims that arise or have arisen in the ordinary course of business and that have not resulted in legal proceedings or have not been fully adjudicated. Such matters that may arise in the ordinary course of business are subject to many uncertainties and outcomes are not predictable with assurance. Therefore, if one or more of these legal disputes or claims resulted in settlements or legal proceedings that were resolved against the Company for amounts in excess of management’s expectations, the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the relevant reporting period could be materially adversely affected.

7. Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interest

Novvi LLC

In September 2011, the Company and Cosan US, Inc. (or “Cosan U.S.”) formed Novvi LLC (or “Novvi”), a U.S. entity that is jointly owned by the Company and Cosan U.S.. In March 2013, the Company and Cosan U.S. entered into agreements to (i) expand their base oils joint venture to also include additives and lubricants and (ii) operate their joint venture exclusively through Novvi. Specifically, the parties entered into an Amended and Restated Operating Agreement for Novvi (or the “Operating Agreement”), which sets forth the governance procedures for Novvi and the parties' initial contribution. The Company also entered into an IP License Agreement with Novvi (or the IP License Agreement) under which the Company granted Novvi (i) an exclusive (subject to certain limited exceptions for the Company), worldwide, royalty-free license to develop, produce and commercialize base oils, additives, and lubricants derived from Biofene for use in automotive and industrial lubricants markets and (ii) a non-exclusive, royalty free license, subject to certain conditions, to manufacture Biofene solely for its own products. In addition, both the Company and Cosan U.S. granted Novvi certain rights of first refusal with respect to alternative base oil and additive technologies that may be acquired by the Company or Cosan U.S. during the term of the IP License Agreement. Under these agreements, the Company and Cosan U.S. each own 50% of Novvi and each party shares equally in any costs and any profits ultimately realized by the joint venture. Novvi is governed by a six member Board of Managers (or the “Board of Managers”), with three managers represented by each investor. The Board of Managers appoints the officers of Novvi, who are responsible for carrying out the daily operating activities of Novvi as directed by the Board of Managers. The IP License Agreement has an initial term of 20 years from the date of the agreement, subject to standard early termination provisions such as uncured material breach or a party's insolvency. Under the terms of the Operating Agreement, Cosan U.S. was obligated to fund its 50% ownership share of Novvi in cash in the amount of $10.0 million and the Company was obligated to fund its 50% ownership share of Novvi through the granting of an IP License to develop, produce and commercialize base oils, additives, and lubricants derived from Biofene for use in the automotive, commercial and industrial lubricants markets, which Cosan U.S. and Amyris agreed was valued at $10.0 million. In March 2013, the Company measured its initial contribution of intellectual property to Novvi at the Company's carrying value of the licenses granted under the IP License Agreement, which was zero. Additional funding requirements to finance the ongoing operations of Novvi are expected to happen through revolving credit or other loan facilities provided by unrelated parties (i.e. such as financial institutions); cash advances or other credit or loan facilities provided by the Company and Cosan U.S. or their affiliates; or additional capital contributions by the Company and Cosan U.S.

In April 2014, the Company purchased additional membership units of Novvi for an aggregate purchase price of $0.2 million. Also in April 2014, the Company contributed $2.1 million in cash in exchange for receiving additional membership units in Novvi. Each member owns 50% of Novvi's issued and outstanding membership units.

In September 2014, the Company and Cosan U.S. entered into a member senior loan agreement to grant Novvi a loan amounting to approximately $3.7 million. The loan is due on September 1, 2017 and bears interest at a rate of 0.36% per annum. Interest accrues daily and will be due and payable in arrears on September 1, 2017. The Company and Cosan U.S. each agreed to provide 50% of the loan. The Company's share of approximately $1.8 million was disbursed in two installments. The first installment of $1.2 million was made in September 2014 and the second installment of $0.6 million was made in October 2014. In November 2014, the Company and Cosan U.S. entered into a second member senior loan agreement to grant Novvi a loan of approximately $1.9 million on the same terms as the loan issued in September 2014. The Company and Cosan U.S. each agreed to provide 50% of the loan. The Company disbursed its share of approximately $1.0 million in November 2014. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 total loans to Novvi were $1.6 million and $1.7 million, net of imputation of interest of $0.9 million and $1.0 million as result of the below market interest rate on the loan to affiliate, respectively.

 
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The following table is a reconciliation of our equity and loans in Novvi:
 
   
March 31,
 
(In thousands)
 
2015
   
2014
 
Balance at January 1
  $ 2,192     $  
Share in net loss offset to equity investment
    (447 )      
Share in net loss offset to loans to affiliate
    (361 )      
Accretion of imputed interest
    175        
Balance at March 31
  $ 1,559     $  

The Company has identified Novvi as a VIE and determined that the power to direct activities, which most significantly impact the economic success of the joint venture (i.e. continuing research and development, marketing, sales, distribution and manufacturing of Novvi products), is equally shared between the Company and Cosan U.S. Accordingly, the Company is not the primary beneficiary and therefore accounts for its investment in Novvi under the equity method of accounting. The Company will continue to reassess its primary beneficiary analysis of Novvi if there are changes in events and circumstances impacting the power to direct activities that most significantly affect Novvi's economic success. Under the equity method, the Company's share of profits and losses are included in “Loss from investments in affiliates” in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. For the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company recorded $0.8 million and zero for its share of Novvi's net loss. The carrying amount of the Company's equity investment in Novvi as of both March 31, 2015 and 2014 was reduced to zero by its share in Novvi's loss. The Company recorded no amounts of its share of Novvi's net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2014 as the carrying amount of the Company's investment in Novvi was zero and losses in excess of the carrying amount were offset by the accretion of the Company's share in the basis difference resulting from the joint venture parties' initial contribution. Refer to Note 13, "Related Party Transactions" for details of other transactions between the Company and Novvi.

Total Amyris BioSolutions B.V.

In November 2013, the Company and Total formed JVCO. The common equity of JVCO is jointly owned (50%/50%) by the Company and Total, and the preferred equity of JVCO is 100% owned by the Company. The Parties have agreed that JVCO’s purpose is limited to executing the License Agreement and maintaining such licenses under it, unless and until either (i) Total elects to go forward with either the full (diesel and jet fuel) JVCO commercialization program or the jet fuel component of the JVCO commercialization program (or a “Go Decision”), (ii) Total elects to not continue its participation in the R&D Program and JVCO (or a “No-Go Decision”), or (iii) Total exercises any of its rights to buy out the Company’s interest in JVCO. Following a Go Decision, the articles and shareholders’ agreement of JVCO would be amended and restated to be consistent with the shareholders’ agreement contemplated by the July 2012 Agreements (see Note 5, "Debt" and Note 8, "Significant Agreements").

The JVCO has an initial capitalization of €0.1 million (approximately US$0.1 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015). The Company has identified JVCO as a VIE and determined that the Company is not the primary beneficiary and therefore accounts for its investment in JVCO under the equity method of accounting. Following a "Go" decision, no later than six months prior to July 31, 2016, the Company and Total are required to amend the July 2012 Agreements to reflect the corporate structure of JVCO, amend and restate the articles of association of JVCO, finalize and agree on a five-year plan and an initial budget, maximize economic viability and value of JVCO and enter into the Total license agreement. The Company will reevaluate its assessment in 2016 based on the specific terms of the final shareholders' agreement.

SMA Indústria Química S.A.

In April 2010, the Company established SMA Indústria Química (or "SMA"), a joint venture with São Martinho S.A. (or "São Martinho"), to build a production facility in Brazil. SMA is located at the São Martinho mill in Pradópolis, São Paulo state. The joint venture agreements establishing SMA have a 20 year initial term.

 
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SMA is managed by a three member executive committee, of which the Company appoints two members, one of whom is the plant manager who is the most senior executive responsible for managing the construction and operation of the facility. SMA is governed by a four member board of directors, of which the Company and São Martinho each appoint two members. The board of directors has certain protective rights which include final approval of the engineering designs and project work plan developed and recommended by the executive committee.

The joint venture agreements require the Company to fund the construction costs of the new facility and São Martinho would reimburse the Company up to R$61.8 million (approximately US$19.3 million based on the exchange rate as of March 31, 2015) of the construction costs after SMA commences production. After commercialization, the Company would market and distribute Amyris renewable products produced by SMA and São Martinho would sell feedstock and provide certain other services to SMA. The cost of the feedstock to SMA would be a price that is based on the average return that São Martinho could receive from the production of its current products, sugar and ethanol. The Company would be required to purchase the output of SMA for the first four years at a price that guarantees the return of São Martinho’s investment plus a fixed interest rate. After this four year period, the price would be set to guarantee a break-even price to SMA plus an agreed upon return.

Under the terms of the joint venture agreements, if the Company becomes controlled, directly or indirectly, by a competitor of São Martinho, then São Martinho has the right to acquire the Company’s interest in SMA. If São Martinho becomes controlled, directly or indirectly, by a competitor of the Company, then the Company has the right to sell its interest in SMA to São Martinho. In either case, the purchase price shall be determined in accordance with the joint venture agreements, and the Company would continue to have the obligation to acquire products produced by SMA for the remainder of the term of the supply agreement then in effect even though the Company would no longer be involved in SMA’s management.

The Company has a 50% ownership interest in SMA. The Company has identified SMA as a VIE pursuant to the accounting guidance for consolidating VIEs because the amount of total equity investment at risk is not sufficient to permit SMA to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support, as well as because the related commercialization agreement provides a substantive minimum price guarantee. Under the terms of the joint venture agreement, the Company directs the design and construction activities, as well as production and distribution. In addition, the Company has the obligation to fund the design and construction activities until commercialization is achieved. Subsequent to the construction phase, both parties equally fund SMA for the term of the joint venture. Based on those factors, the Company was determined to have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact SMA’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses and the right to receive benefits. Accordingly, the financial results of SMA are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and amounts pertaining to São Martinho’s interest in SMA are reported as noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries.

The Company completed a significant portion of the construction of the new facility in 2012. The Company suspended construction of the facility in 2013 in order to focus on completing and operating the Company's smaller production facility in Brotas, Brazil. In February 2014, the Company entered into an amendment to the joint venture agreement with São Martinho which updated and documented certain preexisting business plan requirements related to the recommencement of construction at the joint venture operated plant and sets forth, among other things, (i) the extension of the deadline for the commencement of operations at the joint venture operated plant to no later than 18 months following the construction of the plant no later than March 31, 2017, and (ii) the extension of an option held by São Martinho to build a second large-scale farnesene production facility to no later than December 31, 2018 with the commencement of operations at such second facility to occur no later than April 1, 2019.

Glycotech

In January 2011, the Company entered into a production service agreement (or the "Glycotech Agreement") with Glycotech, Inc. (or "Glycotech"), under which Glycotech provides process development and production services for the manufacturing of various Company products at its leased facility in Leland, North Carolina. The Company products manufactured by Glycotech are owned and distributed by the Company. Pursuant to the terms of the Glycotech Agreement, the Company is required to pay the manufacturing and operating costs of the Glycotech facility, which is dedicated solely to the manufacture of Amyris products. The initial term of the Glycotech Agreement was for a two year period commencing on February 1, 2011 and the Glycotech Agreement renews automatically for successive one-year terms, unless terminated by the Company. Concurrent with the Glycotech Agreement, the Company also entered into a Right of First Refusal Agreement with the lessor of the facility and site leased by Glycotech (or the "ROFR Agreement"). Per conditions of the ROFR Agreement, the lessor agreed not to sell the facility and site leased by Glycotech during the term of the Glycotech Agreement. In the event that the lessor is presented with an offer to sell or decides to sell an adjacent parcel, the Company has the right of first refusal to acquire it.

The Company has determined that the arrangement with Glycotech qualifies as a VIE. The Company determined that it is the primary beneficiary of this arrangement since it has the power through the management committee over which it has majority control to direct the activities that most significantly impact Glycotech's economic performance. In addition, the Company is required to fund 100% of Glycotech's actual operating costs for providing services each month while the facility is in operation under the Glycotech Agreement. Accordingly, the Company consolidates the financial results of Glycotech. As of March 31, 2015, the carrying amounts of the consolidated VIE's assets and liabilities were not material to the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.

 
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The table below reflects the carrying amount of the assets and liabilities of the two consolidated VIEs for which the Company is the primary beneficiary. As of March 31, 2015, the assets include $16.3 million in property, plant and equipment, $2.5 million in other assets and $0.5 million in current assets. The liabilities include $0.3 million in accounts payable and accrued current liabilities and $0.3 million in loan obligations by Glycotech to its shareholders that are non-recourse to the Company. The creditors of each consolidated VIE have recourse only to the assets of that VIE.
 
(In thousands)
 
March 31,
2015
   
December 31,
2014
 
Assets
  $ 19,260     $ 22,812  
Liabilities
    578       290  

The change in noncontrolling interest for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, is summarized below (in thousands):
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Balance at January 1
  $ 611     $ 584  
Foreign currency translation adjustment
    (267 )     23  
Income attributable to noncontrolling interest
    22       29  
Balance at March 31
  $ 366     $ 636  


8. Significant Agreements

Research and Development Activities

Total Collaboration Arrangement

In June 2010, the Company entered into a technology license, development, research and collaboration agreement (or the “Collaboration Agreement”) with Total Gas & Power USA Biotech, Inc., an affiliate of Total. This agreement provided for joint collaboration on the development of products through the use of the Company’s synthetic biology platform. In November 2011, the Company entered into an amendment of the Collaboration Agreement with respect to development and commercialization of Biofene for fuels. This represented an expansion of the initial collaboration with Total, and established a global, exclusive collaboration for the development of Biofene for fuels and a framework for the creation of a joint venture to manufacture and commercialize Biofene for diesel. In addition, a limited number of other potential products were subject to development by the joint venture on a non-exclusive basis.

In November 2011, the Company and Total entered into an amendment of the Collaboration Agreement (or the “Amendment”). The Amendment provided for an exclusive strategic collaboration for the development of renewable diesel products and contemplated that the parties would establish a joint venture (or the “JV”) for the production and commercialization of such renewable diesel products on an exclusive, worldwide basis.  In addition, the Amendment contemplated providing the JV with the right to produce and commercialize certain other chemical products on a non-exclusive basis. The amendment further provided that definitive agreements to form the JV had to be in place by March 31, 2012 or such other date as agreed to by the parties or the renewable diesel program, including any further collaboration payments by Total related to the renewable diesel program, would terminate. In the second quarter of 2012, the parties extended the deadline to June 30, 2012, and, through June 30, 2012 the parties were engaged in discussions regarding the structure of future payments related to the program, until the amendment was superseded by a further amendment in July 2012 (as further described below).

 
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Pursuant to the Amendment, Total agreed to fund the following amounts: (i) the first $30.0 million in research and development costs related to the renewable diesel program incurred since August 1, 2011, which amount would be in addition to the $50.0 million in research and development funding contemplated by the Collaboration Agreement, and (ii) for any research and development costs incurred following the JV formation date that were not covered by the initial $30.0 million, an additional $10.0 million in 2012 and up to an additional $10.0 million in 2013, which amounts would be considered part of the $50.0 million contemplated by the Collaboration Agreement. In addition to these payments, Total further agreed to fund 50% of all remaining research and development costs for the renewable diesel program under the Amendment.

In July 2012, the Company entered into a further amendment of the Collaboration Agreement that expanded Total’s investment in the Biofene collaboration, incorporated the development of certain JV products for use in diesel and jet fuel into the scope of the collaboration, and changed the structure of the funding from Total for the collaboration by establishing a convertible debt structure for the collaboration funding (see Note 5, “Debt”). In connection with such additional amendment Total and the Company also executed certain other related agreements. Under these agreements, (collectively referred to as the “July 2012 Agreements”), the parties would grant exclusive manufacturing and commercial licenses to the JV for the JV products (diesel and jet fuel from Biofene) when the JV was formed. The licenses to the JV were to be consistent with the principle that development, production and commercialization of the JV products in Brazil would remain with Amyris unless Total elected, after formation of the operational JV, to have such business contributed to the joint venture (see below for additional detail). Further, as part of the July 2012 Agreements, Total's royalty option contingency related to diesel was removed and the jet fuel collaboration was combined with the expanded Biofene collaboration. As a result, $46.5 million of payments previously received from Total that had been recorded as an advance from Total were no longer contingently repayable. Of this amount, $23.3 million was treated as a repayment by the Company and included as part of the senior unsecured convertible promissory note issued to Total in July 2012 and the remaining $23.2 million was recorded as a contract to perform research and development services, which was offset by the reduction of the capitalized deferred charge asset of $14.4 million resulting in the Company recording revenue from a related party of $8.9 million in 2012.

With respect to funding from Total for the collaboration, the July 2012 Agreements established a funding framework tied to a series of “Go/No-Go” decisions by Total with respect to the fuels collaboration. In conjunction with funding decisions in July 2013 and July 2014, Total had the right to determine whether or not to proceed and continue funding the fuels collaboration. Then, thirty days following the earlier of the completion of the research and development program and December 31, 2016, Total would have a final opportunity to decide whether or not to proceed with the fuels collaboration — a decision point referred to as a “Final Go/No-Go Decision.” The funding history and structure of the program is described in more detail below; however, the July 2012 Agreements provided for funding by Total of up to an aggregate of $105.0 million, all of which has since been funded. Such funding was paid in installments over a period from July 2012 through January 2015, with Amyris convertible promissory notes issued to Total in each closing.

At either of the initial decision points referenced above (in July 2013 or July 2014), if Total had decided not to continue to fund the program, the outstanding convertible promissory notes issued under this funding structure would have remained outstanding and become payable by the Company at the maturity date in March 2017, the research and development program and associated agreements would have terminated, and all rights granted to Total and the JV related to Biofene-based diesel and jet fuel would have reverted to the Company. Total did, however, decide to proceed with funding the program at each of the initial decision points as described in more detail below.

In the Final Go/No-Go Decision, Total can elect to: (a) proceed with both diesel and jet fuel, (b) proceed with only the jet fuel component of the program, or (c) elect to cease Total’s participation in the program entirely. In case of a full go decision, the parties would cause the existing JVCO to become an operational diesel and jet fuel JV and the outstanding notes would be canceled. In case of a go decision only with respect to jet fuel, the parties would cause the existing JV entity to become an operational JV only for jet fuel (and the rights associated with diesel would terminate), 70% of the outstanding notes would remain outstanding and become payable by the Company, and 30% of the outstanding notes would be canceled. In case of a No-Go decision, the outstanding notes would remain outstanding and become payable by the Company at the maturity date in March 2017.

In case of a final Go Decision, if the parties are unable to reach final agreement on the terms (including business plans and budgets) of the operational JV, Total would have the right to buy the Company’s interest in the operational JV. Also, if the operational JV is formed, Total would have an option to require the Company to contribute its Brazil-based fuels business to the operational JV at a price based on the Company’s historical investment in the Brazil business).

 
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Under the July 2012 Agreements, the Company issued Total Notes to Total for an aggregate of  $30.0 million in new cash and to document $23.3 million in previous funding from Total in the third quarter of 2012 and an additional $30.0 million in new cash in 2013. The Company issued additional Total Notes in July 2014 and January 2015 for aggregate cash proceeds of $21.7 million (in two installments of $10.85 million). The conversion price of the notes issued in July 2014 and January 2015 were adjusted from $7.0682 per share to $4.11 pursuant to a March 2014 letter agreement between the Company and Total, which was approved by the Company’s stockholders at its 2014 Annual Meeting of stockholders.

Should Total decide not to pursue commercialization, the Company is obligated to repay the Total Notes, or Total may elect to convert the principal amount of the Total Notes into common stock (at an initial conversion price of $7.0682 per share for those notes issued in 2012, an initial conversion price of $3.08 per share for those notes issued in 2013, and an initial conversion price of $4.11 per share for those notes issued in July 2014 and January 2015).

Under the July 2012 Agreements, Total was granted a right to participate in certain future equity or convertible debt financings to preserve its pro rata ownership. The purchase price for the first $30 million of purchases under this pro rata right could, at Total’s option, be paid by cancellation of outstanding Total Notes held by Total. Total has since, in financings that closed in December 2012, October 2013, December 2013, January 2014 and May 2014 used and extinguished that right.

In December 2012, Total elected to participate in a private placement of the Company’s common stock by exchanging approximately $5.0 million of its $53.3 million in senior unsecured convertible promissory notes then outstanding for 1,677,852 of the Company’s common stock at a price of $2.98 per share. As such, $5.0 million of the outstanding $53.3 million in senior unsecured convertible promissory notes was cancelled. Total then purchased approximately $9.3 million of Tranche I Notes (see “Related Party Convertible Notes” in Note 5, “Debt”) through cancellation of same amount of principal of previously outstanding Total Notes held by Total. Total also later purchased approximately $6.0 million of Tranche II Notes (see Note 5, “Debt”) through cancellation of the same amount of principal of previously outstanding Total Notes held by Total. Finally, in connection with the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering (see “Related Party Convertible Notes” in Note 5, “Debt”), the Company used approximately $9.7 million of the net proceeds of the Rule144A Convertible Note Offering to repay Total such amount of previously issued Total Notes (representing the amount of notes purchased by Total from Morgan Stanley & Co. (as the initial purchaser) under the Rule 144A Convertible Note Offering). As of March 15, 2015, $75.0 million of Total Notes remained outstanding.

Additionally, separate from the pro rata rights granted to Total under the July 2012 Agreements, in connection with subsequent investments by Total in the Company, the Company granted Total, among other investors, a right of first investment if it sells securities in a private placement financing transaction. With these rights, Total and other investors may subscribe for a portion of any new financing and require the Company to comply with certain notice periods. Further, Total and other holders of notes issued in the first and second tranches under the August 2013 SPA (see “Related Party Convertible Notes” in Note 5, “Debt”) have a right to cancel certain outstanding Tranche I Notes and Tranche II Notes to exercise pro rata rights under the August 2013 SPA. To the extent Total or other investors exercise these rights, it will reduce the cash proceeds the Company may realize from the relevant financing.

In December 2013, the Company executed the JV Documents among Amyris, Total and JVCO relating to the establishment of the JVCO (see Note 7, "Joint Venture and Noncontrolling Interest" and Note 5, “Debt—Related Party Convertible Notes).

In May 2014, the Company entered into a Pilot Plant Services Agreement and a Sublease Agreement (together with the Pilot Plant Services Agreement, the “Pilot Plant Agreements”) with Total. The Pilot Plant Agreements generally have a term of five years. Under the terms of the Pilot Plant Services Agreement, the Company agreed to provide certain fermentation and downstream separations scale-up services and training to Total and receive an aggregate annual fee payable by Total for all services in the amount of up to approximately $0.9 million. Under the Sublease Agreement, the Company receives an annual base rent payable by Total of approximately $0.1 million.

The currently outstanding Total Notes have a March 1, 2017 maturity date. As of March 31, 2015, after cancellation of certain of the Total Notes, there was $30.0 million in outstanding principal under Total Notes with a conversion price of $3.08 per share, there was $21.7 million in outstanding principal under Total Notes with a conversion price of $4.11 per share and there was $23.3 million in outstanding principal under Total Notes with a conversion price of $7.0682 per share (see “Related Party Convertible Notes” in Note 5, “Debt”).

 
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Collaboration Partner Joint Development and License Agreement

In April 2013, the Company entered into a joint development and license agreement with a collaboration partner. Under the terms of the multi-year agreement, the collaboration partner and the Company will jointly develop certain fragrance ingredients. The collaboration partner will have exclusive rights to these fragrance ingredients for applications in the flavors and fragrances field, and the Company will have exclusive rights in other fields. The collaboration partner and the Company will share in the economic value derived from these ingredients. The joint development and license agreement provided for up to $6.0 million in funding based upon the achievement of certain technical milestones, which are considered substantive by the Company, during the first phase of the collaboration.

In February 2014, the Company entered into an amendment to the joint development and license agreement with the collaboration partner noted in the preceding paragraph to proceed with the second phase of the collaboration and the development of a certain fragrance ingredient.

The Company recognized collaboration revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2015, of $0.8 million under this agreement. As of March 31, 2015 and 2014, zero was recorded in deferred revenue.

Collaboration Partner Master Collaboration and Joint Development Agreement

In November 2010, the Company entered into a Master Collaboration and Joint Development Agreement with a collaboration partner. Under the agreement, the collaboration partner was to fund technical development at the Company to produce an ingredient for the flavors and fragrances market. The Company agreed to manufacture the ingredient and the collaboration partner would market it, and the parties would share in any resulting economic value. The agreement also grants exclusive worldwide flavors and fragrances commercialization rights to the collaboration partner for the ingredient. Under further agreements, the collaboration partner has an option to collaborate with the Company to develop additional ingredients. These agreements continue in effect until the later of the expiration or termination of the development agreements or the supply agreements. The Company is also eligible to receive potential total payments of $6.0 million upon the achievement of certain performance milestones towards which the Company will be required to make a contributory performance. The Company concluded that these milestone payments are substantive. All performance milestones under this agreement were achieved in 2013. Collaboration revenues of $2.0 million were recognized in each of the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.

In March 2013, the Company entered into a Master Collaboration Agreement (or the “March 2013 Agreement”) with the collaboration partner to establish a collaboration arrangement for the development and commercialization of multiple renewable flavors and fragrances compounds. Under this agreement, except for rights granted under preexisting collaboration relationships, the Company granted the collaboration partner exclusive access for such compounds to specified Company intellectual property for the development and commercialization of flavors and fragrances products in exchange for research and development funding and a profit sharing arrangement. The agreement superseded and expanded the prior collaboration agreement between the Company and the collaboration partner.

The agreement provided for annual, up-front funding to the Company by the collaboration partner of $10.0 million for each of the first three years of the collaboration. Payments of $10.0 million were received by the Company in each of March 2013, 2014 and 2015. The Company recognized collaboration revenues under the March 2013 Agreement with the collaboration partner in each of the three months periods ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, of $2.5 million. The agreement contemplated additional funding by the collaboration partner of up to $5.0 million under three potential milestone payments, as well as additional funding by the collaboration partner on a discretionary basis. In March 2015, the Company achieved the second performance milestone under the Master Collaboration Agreement and recognized collaboration revenues of $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015.

  In addition, the March 2013 Agreement contemplated that the parties will mutually agree on a supply price for each compound and share product margins from sales of each compound on a 70/30 basis (70% for the collaboration partner) until the collaboration partner receives $15.0 million more than the Company in the aggregate, after which the parties will share 50/50 in the product margins on all compounds. The Company also agreed to pay a one-time success bonus of up to $2.5 million to the collaboration partner's for outperforming certain commercialization targets. The collaboration partner eligibility to receive the one-time success bonus commences upon the first sale of the collaboration partner's product. The March 2013 Agreement does not impose any specific research and development commitments on either party after year six, but if the parties mutually agree to perform development after year six, the agreement provides that the parties will fund it equally.

Under the March 2013 Agreement, the parties agreed to jointly select target compounds, subject to final approval of compound specifications by the collaboration partner. During the development phase, the Company would be required to provide labor, intellectual property and technology infrastructure and the collaboration partner would be required to contribute downstream polishing expertise and market access. The March 2013 Agreement provided that the Company would own research and development and strain engineering intellectual property, and the collaboration partner would own blending and, if applicable, chemical conversion intellectual property. Under certain circumstances such as the Company's insolvency, the collaboration partner would gain expanded access to the Company's intellectual property. Following development of flavors and fragrances compounds under the  March 2013 Agreement, the  March 2013 Agreement contemplated that the Company would manufacture the initial target molecules for the compounds and the collaboration partner will perform any required downstream polishing and distribution, sales and marketing.

 
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In September 2014, the Company entered into a supply agreement with the collaboration partner to provide target compounds to make a certain finished ingredient and market and sell such finished ingredient and/or products to the flavors and fragrances market. The Company recognized zero revenues from product sales under this agreement for the three months ended March 31, 2015.

Collaboration Agreement Michelin and Braskem

In September 2011, the Company entered into a collaboration agreement with Manufacture Francaise de Pnematiques Michelin (or “Michelin”). Under the terms of the September 2011 collaboration agreement, the Company and Michelin agreed to collaborate on the development, production and worldwide commercialization of isoprene or isoprenol, generally for tire applications, using the Company's technology. Under the agreement, Michelin paid an upfront payment to the Company of $5.0 million.

In June 2014, the Company entered into a collaboration agreement with Braskem S.A. (or “Braskem”) and Michelin to collaborate to develop the technology to produce and possibly commercialize renewable isoprene. The term of the collaboration agreement commenced on June 30, 2014 and will continue, unless earlier terminated in accordance with the agreement, until the first to occur of (i) the date that is three years following the actual date on which a work plan is completed, which date is estimated to occur on or about December 30, 2020 or (ii) the date of the commencement of commissioning of a production plant for the production of renewable isoprene. The June 2014 collaboration agreement terminated and supersedes the September 2011 collaboration agreement with Michelin, and as a result of the signing of the June 2014 collaboration agreement, the upfront payment by Michelin of $5.0 million is being rolled into the new collaboration agreement between Michelin, Braskem and the Company as Michelin's collaboration funding towards the research and development activities to be performed. As of December 31, 2014, the Company accrued a total contribution from Braskem to the collaboration of $4.0 million, of which $2.0 million was received in July 2014 and $2.0 million was received in January 2015.

The Company recognized collaboration revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2015, of $1.0 million under this agreement. As of March 31, 2015, $8.6 million of deferred revenues was recorded in the condensed consolidated balance sheet related to these agreements.

Kuraray Collaboration Agreement and Securities Purchase Agreement

In March 2014, the Company entered into the Second Amended and Restated Collaboration Agreement with Kuraray Co., Ltd (or “Kuraray”) in order to extend the term of the original agreement dated July 21, 2011 for an additional two years and add additional fields and products to the scope of development. In consideration for the Company’s agreement to extend the term of the original collaboration agreement and add additional fields and products, Kuraray agreed to pay the Company $4.0 million in two equal installments of $2.0 million. The first installment was paid on April 30, 2014 and the second installment was due on April 30, 2015. In connection with the collaboration agreement, Kuraray signed a Securities Purchase Agreement in March 2014 to purchase 943,396 shares of the Company's common stock at a price per share of $4.24 per share. The Company issued 943,396 shares of its common stock at a price per share of $4.24 in April 2014 for aggregate cash proceeds of $4.0 million. In March 2015, the Company entered into the First Amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Collaboration Agreement with Kuraray Co., Ltd (or Kuraray) to extend the term of the original agreement until December 31, 2016 and accelerated payment to the Company the second installment of $2.0 million to March 31, 2015.

The Company recognized collaboration revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2015, of $0.5 million under this agreement.

Financing Agreements

Nomis Bay Ltd. Common Stock Purchase Agreement

 
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In February 2015, the Company entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement (or the “Common Stock Purchase Agreement”) and a Registration Rights Agreement (or the “Registration Rights Agreement”) with Nomis Bay Ltd. (or “Nomis Bay”) under which the Company may from time to time sell up to $50.0 million of its common stock to Nomis Bay over a 24-month period. In connection with such Common Stock Purchase Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement, the Company also entered into a Placement Agent Letter Agreement (or the “Placement Agent Agreement”) with Financial West Group (or “FWG”, the Common Stock Purchase Agreement, the Registration Rights Agreement and the Placement Agent Agreement are collectively referred to as the “Committed Equity Facility Agreements”). The equity commitment arrangement entered into under the Committed Equity Facility Agreements is sometimes referred to as a committed equity line financing facility. Subject to customary covenants and conditions, from time to time over the 24-month term, and in the Company’s sole discretion, the Company may present Nomis Bay with up to 24 draw down notices requiring Nomis Bay to purchase a specified dollar amount of shares of the Company’s common stock, based on the volume weighted average price of our common stock over 10 consecutive trading days prior to the date the Company delivers a draw down notice (or the “10-Day VWAP”). The per share purchase price for these shares equals the daily volume weighted average price of the Company’s common stock on each date during the 10 consecutive trading days following delivery of the draw down notice (or a “Draw Down Period”) on which shares are purchased, less a discount ranging from 3.0% to 6.25%, which discount is based on the 10-Day VWAP. The maximum amount of shares that may be sold in any Draw Down Period ranges from shares having aggregate purchase prices of $325,000 to $3,250,000, based on the 10-Day VWAP. Alternatively, in the Company’s sole discretion, but subject to certain limitations, the Company may require Nomis Bay to purchase a percentage of the daily trading volume of the Company’s common stock for each trading day during the Draw Down Period. The Company will not sell under the Common Stock Purchase Agreement a number of shares of voting common stock which, when aggregated with all other shares of voting common stock then beneficially owned by Nomis Bay and its affiliates, would result in the beneficial ownership by Nomis Bay or any of its affiliates of more than 9.9% of the then issued and outstanding shares of common stock.

Under the Committed Equity Facility Agreements, the Company agreed to pay up to $35,000 of Nomis Bay’s legal fees and expenses. The Company also agreed to pay Nomis Bay a commitment fee of $0.1 million which was paid at the signing of the Purchase Agreement, and would be required to pay an additional $0.3 million to Nomis Bay prior to the first draw down under the facility, should the Company elect to make any draw downs thereunder. The issuance of the shares of common stock to Nomis Bay would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act pursuant to the exemption for transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering. The Company agreed to indemnify Nomis Bay and its affiliates for losses related to a breach of the representations and warranties by the Company under the Committed Equity Facility Agreements and the other transaction documents, or any action instituted against Nomis Bay or its affiliates due to the transactions contemplated by the Committed Equity Facility Agreements or other transaction documents, subject to certain limitations.

Under the Registration Rights Agreement, the Company granted to Nomis Bay certain registration rights related to the shares issuable in accordance with the Common Stock Purchase Agreement and agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts to prepare and file with the SEC one or more registration statements for the purpose of registering the resale of the maximum shares of common stock issuable pursuant to the Common Stock Purchase Agreement.

Under the Placement Agent Agreement, the Company agreed to pay FWG a fee not to exceed $15,000 in the aggregate for FWG’s reasonable attorney’s fees and expenses incurred in connection with the transaction .

Naxyris Securities Purchase Agreement

In March, 2015, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (or the “Naxyris SPA”) for the sale of up to $10.0 million in principal amount of an unsecured convertible note of the Company (or the “Naxyris Note”) to Naxyris, S.A. (or “Naxyris”), an existing holder of more than 5% of the Company’s outstanding common stock (beneficially owning 5,639,398 shares of the Company’s common stock as of March 15, 2015). Naxyris is an affiliate of Carole Piwnica, a member of the Company’s Board of Directors (or the “Board”) who was designated by Naxyris to serve on the Board under a February 2012 letter agreement among the Company, Naxyris and certain other investors in the Company. The Naxyris SPA contemplates that the Naxyris Note may be issued in one closing to occur at the option of the Company at any time prior to the earlier of March 31, 2016 or the Company completing a new financing (or series of financings) of equity, debt or similar instruments in the amount of at least $10.0 million in the aggregate (excluding amounts that may be raised under existing commitments and agreements in existence as of March 30, 2015), following the satisfaction of certain closing conditions, including the receipt of certain third party consents, and required that the Company pay a commitment availability fee of $0.2 million to Naxyris on April 1, 2015.

The Company may prepay the Naxyris Note (if  issued) at any time, and if not prepaid, the Naxyris Note is due on the earlier of  May 31, 2016 or earlier termination (e.g. in the event of a new capital financing described above) (or the “Maturity Date”).  The Naxyris Note accrues interest at a rate of 11.0% per annum compounding quarterly and payable with the principal at maturity. Upon any draw of the Naxyris Note, the Company would be obligated to pay Naxyris a borrowing fee equal to $0.3 million (or the “Borrowing Fee”). The Borrowing Fee will not be due if the Company does not elect to draw the Naxyris Note under the facility.

The Naxyris Note, including the Borrowing Fee and any accrued interest, would be convertible, at Naxyris’ election, into the Company’s common stock any time after the Maturity Date, at a conversion price per share equal to $2.35, the last consolidated closing bid price of the Company’s common stock on NASDAQ prior to the Company’s entry into the Naxyris SPA, subject to adjustment based on proportional adjustments to outstanding common stock and certain dividends and distributions. The Naxyris Note includes standard covenants and events of default resulting in acceleration of indebtedness, including failure to pay, bankruptcy and insolvency, and breaches of the covenants in the Naxyris SPA and Naxyris Note.

 
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The Naxyris SPA also requires the Company, at or prior to any closing thereunder, to enter into an Amendment No. 6 to the Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement (or the “Rights Agreement Amendment” and the underlying agreement, as amended, the “Rights Agreement”), and, under the Naxyris Note, unless waived by Naxyris, the Company agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts to register the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Naxyris Note in accordance with the Rights Agreement if the Naxyris Note is not repaid by the Maturity Date. Under the Rights Agreement, certain holders of the Company’s outstanding securities can request the filing of a registration statement under the Securities Act, covering the shares of common stock held by (or issued upon conversion of other Company securities, including the Naxyris Note) the requesting holders. Further, under the Rights Agreement, if the Company registers securities for public sale, the Company's stockholders with registration rights under the Rights Agreement have the right to include their shares of the Company's common stock in the registration statement. The Rights Agreement Amendment would extend such rights under the Rights Agreement to the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Naxyris Note.

The proposed sale and issuance of the Naxyris Note is intended to be exempt from registration under the Act in reliance on Section 4(2) of the Act and Rule 506 of Regulation D promulgated under the Securities Act.

Second Hercules Amendment

In March 2015, the Company and Hercules entered into the Second Hercules Amendment. Pursuant to the Second Hercules Amendment, the parties agreed to, among other things, establish an additional credit facility in the principal amount of up to $15.0 million, which would be available to be drawn by the Company at its sole election (in increments of $5.0 million) through the earlier of March 31, 2016 or such time as the Company raises an aggregate of at least $20.0 million through the sale of new equity securities, subject to certain conditions, including the receipt of third party consents and a requirement to first make certain draw-downs under an equity line of credit that the Company previously secured (to the extent the Company is permitted to do so under the terms thereof) (see Note 5, "Debt").

9.  Goodwill and Intangible Assets

The following table presents the components of the Company's intangible assets (in thousands):
 
         
March 31, 2015
   
December 31, 2014
 
   
Useful Life
in Years
   
Gross Carrying Amount
   
Accumulated Amortization
   
Net Carrying Value
   
Gross Carrying Amount
   
Accumulated Amortization/
Impairment
   
Net Carrying Value
 
In-process research and development
 
Indefinite
    $ 5,525     $     $ 5,525     $ 8,560     $ (3,035 )   $ 5,525  
Acquired licenses and permits
  2                         772       (772 )      
Goodwill
 
Indefinite
      560             560       560             560  
          $ 6,085     $     $ 6,085     $ 9,892     $ (3,807 )   $ 6,085  
 
The intangible assets acquired through the acquisition of Draths Corporation in October 2011 of in-process research and development (or “IPR&D”) of $8.6 million are treated as indefinite lived intangible assets until completion or abandonment of the projects, at which time the assets will be amortized over the remaining useful life or written-off, as appropriate. If the carrying amount of the assets is greater than the measures of fair value, impairment is considered to have occurred and a write-down of the asset is recorded. Any finding that the value of its intangible assets has been impaired would require the Company to write-down the impaired portion, which could reduce the value of its assets and reduce (increase) its net income (loss) for the period in which the related impairment charges occur. During the fourth quarter of 2014, the Company updated its ongoing analysis of the technical and commercial viability of the IPR&D. The complex scientific and significant funding requirements of certain potential products, caused the Company to re-focus its research and development efforts on a narrower range of potential products. As a result of the change in strategy, the forecast discounted future cash flows of the IPR&D were updated. As a result of our assessment using the estimated discounted future cash flows of the IPR&D, we recorded an impairment to the value of the IPR&D assets for the three months ended March 31, 2015and 2014 and the year ended December 31, 2014, of zero, zero and $3.0 million, respectively.

 
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Acquired licenses and permits are amortized using a straight-line method over its estimated useful life. Amortization expense for this intangible was zero for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. As of March 31, 2015, acquired licenses and permits were fully amortized.

The Company has a single reportable segment (see Note 15, Reporting Segments" for further details). Consequently, all of the Company's goodwill is attributable to the single reportable segment.

10. Stockholders’ Deficit

Common Stock Warrants

In December 2011, in connection with a capital lease agreement, the Company issued warrants to purchase 21,087 shares of the Company's common stock at an exercise price of $10.67 per share. The Company estimated the fair value of these warrants as of the issuance date to be $0.2 million and recorded these warrants as other assets, amortizing them subsequently over the term of the lease. The fair value was based on the contractual term of the warrants of 10 years, risk free interest rate of 2%, expected volatility of 86% and zero expected dividend yield. These warrants remain unexercised and outstanding as of March 31, 2015.

In October 2013, in connection with the issuance of the Tranche I Notes (see Note 5, "Debt"), the Company issued to Temasek contingently exercisable warrants to purchase 1,000,000 shares of the Company's common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share. The Company estimated the fair value of these warrants as of the issuance date at $1.3 million and recorded these warrants as debt issuance cost to be amortized over the term of the note. The fair-value was calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model based on the contractual term of the warrants of 3.4 years, risk free interest rate of 0.77%, expected volatility of 45% and zero expected dividend yield. These warrants remain unexercised and outstanding as of March 31, 2015.

Each of these warrants includes a cashless exercise provision which permits the holder of the warrant to elect to exercise the warrant without paying the cash exercise price, and receive a number of shares determined by multiplying (i) the number of shares for which the warrant is being exercised by (ii) the difference between the fair market value of the stock on the date of exercise and the warrant exercise price, and dividing such by (iii) the fair market value of the stock on the date of exercise. During three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, no warrants were exercised through the cashless exercise provision.

 As of March 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had 1,021,087 of unexercised common stock warrants.

11. Stock-Based Compensation

The Company’s stock option activity and related information for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was as follows:
 
   
Number
Outstanding
   
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
   
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
   
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
 
                     
(in thousands)
 
Outstanding - December 31, 2014
    10,539,978     $ 6.10       7.22     $ 50  
Options granted
    690,470     $ 2.07                  
Options exercised
    (750 )   $ 0.28                  
Options cancelled
    (526,967 )   $ 4.77                  
Outstanding - March 31, 2015
    10,702,731     $ 5.91       7.15     $ 338  
Vested and Expected to vest after March 31, 2015
    10,044,763     $ 6.08       7.03     $ 290  
Exercisable at March 31, 2015
    5,270,940     $ 8.39       5.53     $ 78  
 
The aggregate intrinsic value of options exercised under all option plans was $0.0 million and $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, determined as of the date of option exercise.

 
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The Company’s restricted stock units (or "RSUs") and restricted stock activity and related information for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was as follows:

   
RSUs
   
Weighted-Average
Grant-Date Fair
Value
   
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Life
(Years)
 
Outstanding - December 31, 2014
    1,975,503     $ 3.59       0.93  
Awarded
    300,000     $ 1.92        
Vested
        $        
Forfeited
    (172,432 )   $ 3.27        
Outstanding - March 31, 2015
    2,103,071     $ 3.18       1.36  
Expected to vest after March 31, 2015
    1,922,632     $ 3.18       0.78  

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2015:
 
     
Options Outstanding
   
Options Exercisable
 
Exercise Price
   
Number of Options
   
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual Life
(Years)
   
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price
   
Number of Options
   
Weighted-Average
Exercise Price
 
$ 0.10—$2.68       1,141,556       8.43     $ 2.20       298,495     $ 2.30  
$ 2.70—$2.85       1,115,745       8.01     $ 2.77       566,649     $ 2.77  
$ 2.87—$3.04       1,105,362       7.41     $ 2.91       556,563     $ 2.90  
$ 3.05—$3.44       946,013       7.48     $ 3.15       343,894     $ 3.13  
$ 3.51—$3.51       2,144,202       9.10     $ 3.51           $  
$ 3.55—$3.93       1,875,162       5.76     $ 3.87       1,298,849     $ 3.89  
$ 4.06—$16.00       1,385,513       4.94     $ 9.69       1,285,410     $ 9.90  
$ 16.50—$25.43       561,116       5.33     $ 20.53       543,018     $ 20.53  
$ 26.84—$26.84       368,062       5.89     $ 26.84       318,062     $ 26.84  
$ 30.17—$30.17       60,000       5.96     $ 30.17       60,000     $ 30.17  
$ 0.10—$30.17       10,702,731       7.15     $ 5.91       5,270,940     $ 8.39  
 
Stock-Based Compensation Expense

Stock-based compensation expense related to options and restricted stock units granted to employees and nonemployees was allocated to research and development expense and sales, general and administrative expense as follows (in thousands):
 
   
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Research and development
  $ 716     $ 798  
Sales, general and administrative
    1,936       2,716  
Total stock-based compensation expense
  $ 2,652     $ 3,514  

As of March 31, 2015, there was unrecognized compensation expense of $9.5 million related to stock options, and the Company expects to recognize this expense over a weighted average period of 2.75 years. As of March 31, 2015, there was unrecognized compensation expense of $3.1 million related to RSUs, and the Company expects to recognize this expense over a weighted average period of 1.78 years.
 
Stock-based compensation expense for RSUs is measured based on the closing fair market value of the Company's common stock on the date of grant. Stock-based compensation expense for stock options and employee stock purchase plan rights is estimated at the grant date and offering date, respectively, based on the fair-value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of employee stock options is being amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards. The fair value of employee stock options was estimated using the following weighted-average assumptions:
 
 
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Three Months Ended March 31,
 
   
2015
   
2014
 
Expected dividend yield
    %     %
Risk-free interest rate
    1.6 %     2.0 %
Expected term (in years)
    5.96       6.2  
Expected volatility
    74 %     76 %

Expected Dividend Yield —The Company has never paid dividends and does not expect to pay dividends.

Risk-Free Interest Rate —The risk-free interest rate was based on the market yield currently available on United States Treasury securities with maturities approximately equal to the option’s expected term.

Expected Term —Expected term represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The Company’s assumptions about the expected term have been based on that of companies that have similar industry, life cycle, revenue, and market capitalization and the historical data on employee exercises.

Expected Volatility —The expected volatility is based on a combination of historical volatility for the Company's stock and the historical stock volatilities of several of the Company’s publicly listed comparable companies over a period equal to the expected terms of the options, as the Company does not have a long trading history.

Forfeiture Rate —The Company estimates its forfeiture rate based on an analysis of its actual forfeitures and will continue to evaluate the adequacy of the forfeiture rate based on actual forfeiture experience, analysis of employee turnover behavior, and other factors. The impact from a forfeiture rate adjustment will be recognized in full in the period of adjustment, and if the actual number of future forfeitures differs from that estimated by the Company, the Company may be required to record adjustments to stock-based compensation expense in future periods.

Each of the inputs discussed above is subjective and generally requires significant management and director judgment.

12. Employee Benefit Plan

The Company established a 401(k) Plan to provide tax deferred salary deductions for all eligible employees. Participants may make voluntary contributions to the 401(k) Plan up to 90% of their eligible compensation, limited by certain Internal Revenue Service (or the "IRS") restrictions. Effective January 2014, the Company implemented a discretionary employer match plan whereby the Company will match employee contributions up to the IRS limit or 90% of compensation, with a minimum one year of service required for vesting. The total matching amount for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was $0.1 million.

13. Related Party Transactions

Related Party Financings

See Note 5 “Debt” for details of debt financing provided to the Company by related parties.

In August 2013, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement by and among the Company, Total and Temasek, each a beneficial owner of more than 5% of the Company's existing common stock at the time of the transaction, for a private placement of convertible promissory notes in an aggregate principal amount of $73.0 million. The initial closing of the August 2013 Financing was completed in October 2013 for the sale of approximately $42.6 million of the Tranche I Notes and the second closing of the August 2013 Financing for the sale of approximately $30.4 million of the Tranche II Notes was completed in January 2014 (the Company issued to Temasek $25.0 million of Tranche II Notes for cash and Total purchased approximately $6.0 million of Tranche II Notes through cancellation of the same amount of principal of previously outstanding convertible promissory notes held by Total (in respect of Total's preexisting contractual right to maintain its pro rata ownership position through such cancellation)). See “Related Party Convertible Notes” in Note 5, “Debt."
 
 
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In October 2013, the Company sold and issued a senior secured promissory note to Temasek for a bridge loan of $35.0 million. The note was due on February 2, 2014 and accrued interest at a rate of 5.5% each four months from October 4, 2013 (with a rate of 2% per month if a default occurred). The note was cancelled as payment for the investor’s purchase of Tranche I Notes in the August 2013 Financing. See "Related Party Convertible Notes" in Note 5, "Debt."

In December 2013, the Company agreed to issue to Temasek $25.0 million of the Tranche II Notes for cash. Total purchased approximately $6.0 million of